THE EXPULSION AND MARTYRDOM OF THE GREEKS OF TURKEY 1914-1918
The Ecumenical Patriarchate documented the persecution of Greeks in Ottoman Turkey during the period 1914-1918 and published its report in 1919 under the title Black Book: The Expulsion and Martyrdom of the Greeks of Turkey 1914-1918 (Μαύρη Βίβλος: Διωγμών και Μαρτυρίων του εν Τουρκία Ελληνισμού 1914-1918).
Part A: Thrace
Part B: East and west Asia Minor
Part C: Pontus
Part D: Patriarchate Documents
Part E: Statistics on Deportations
An abridged version of the Black Book was published in English under the title Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918.
The Patriarchate released a second Black Book in 1920 documenting the continued persecution of Greeks from the Armistice to the end of 1920 under the Kemalists.
TURKS KILLED 120,000
East Oregonian, Sep 16, 1922.
GREEKS, ARMENIANS MASSACRED BY TURKS ACCORDING TO ESTIMATE; U.S. DESTROYERS ARE REMOVING REFUGEES MASSED AT SMYRNA.
British Reinforcements Landed at Constantinople Today While Turkish Cavalry Neared The City; Greek Warship Opened Fire on Turkish Quarter of Smyrna; American Flag Prevented One Massacre; Many Girls Have Been Kidnapped.
Great Britain Has Invited Greece, Rumania, Serbia and British Dominions to Participate in the Defense of Zone Around Constantinople.
Mohammedan Leaders Have Decided Upon a General Moslem Uprising Simultaneously with Attack on Constantinople; White Massacre Expected to Follow Uprising; Russia and Bulgaria Ready to Side with Turks in Event of War.
Unconfirmed estimates from Armenian sources say that seventy thousand Christians were massacred in Smyrna and fifty thousand elsewhere in the path of the Turkish armies. Refugees along Smyrna Bay are estimated at half a million.
Smyrna, Sept. 16, -(U.P)- Twenty-five hundred dead bodies litter the streets, while the harbor waters are dotted with floating corpses as a result of the massacre and fire. Girls from twelve to eighteen were kidnapped. Aged men and women were shot down as they fled from the fire. Six thousand Greeks are reported burned alive.
Excerpts from article appear above. To read entire article click here.
Source: East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR), 16 Sept. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88086023/1922-09-16/ed-1/seq-1/>
(The "Times" Cables)
The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1939), p. 5.
LONDON, July 28.
The correspondent of the "Times" at Constantinople reports that the Nationalists have massacred hundreds of Greeks and Armenian civilians at Geive [Geyve], and there have been numerous murders elsewhere. These crimes were quite unprovoked.
The conduct of the Greek troops has been exemplary, but they will be difficult to restrain if they find more butchered Christians. The British Government is blamed for dilatoriness in trying the Turks interned at Malta who are charged in connection with massacres. These were invariably authorised from above. So far only one man has been hanged. If a few more of the more highly placed Turks know they risked their own necks the massacres would probably cease.
Sta Ikhni ton Martyron (In the Traces of the Martyrs)
166 pages, in Greek.
Stavros Rakitzis was born in Findikli (Gr: Foundouklia) which was a group of 3 Greek settlements in the İzmit region of north-western Asia Minor (Turkey). Findikli was situated 16km north of Adapazari and had a population of 3,000 comprising 400 families. The settlements were: Leventkoy, Kantarkoy and Asakoy.
The massacre of the Greeks of Findikli occurred in June of 1920 and was part of a broader series of massacres perpetrated by Kemalist forces in the İzmit region between 1920-1921. According to the British Foreign Office based in Constantinople, the men of Findilki were shot after being locked up in a church, while women were exiled and killed. The Foreign Office reported that 400 men and 30 women were massacred. Rakitzis collated 17 testimonies from survivors of the massacres. An excerpt from the testimony of one survivor appears below.
The testimony of Erifili Moskofidou of Asakoy, Findikli (from page 72).
When they finished with this (taking all our money and jewelry) they started assembling the men in the church of the Virgin Mary and the women and children at the school. After all the jewelry was gathered, Kantercius (the leader of the çetes) told my father not to worry. "I will save you all. I want you also to go and tell all the men to gather at the church so that we can talk to them".
My father thought that they would be safe and that nobody would be hurt, so he went home and told my brother Dimitri to come down from the ceiling where he was hiding with his wife.
My brother had just been married 8 days ago and they only found out in the morning that the village had been surrounded by çetes, so he and his wife both hid in the ceiling of their home. That's why I lost both my brother and my father.
When the çetes finally left from our region, and we went back to our village, we didn't see a village. All we saw was flattened earth and ashes, of houses and of human bodies that had met with pain and horror. Somewhere among all this we found a piece of my brother's shirt clinging to some ashes. It showed that those ashes were those of my brother. We gathered them and buried them. We couldn't find any trace of my father.
Those who were lucky to escape told us later that they tied the men up with ropes in 2's or 3's and forced them into their homes then began shooting them and setting their homes on fire thus burning them while they were still inside half-dead.
The Priest of our village, Father Constantinos, they singled out for specific treatment. They hung him inside the church of the Virgin Mary. He was my uncle.
DEFEATED TURK ORDERS KILLING
Greeks Capture Documents Directing Massacre in Aidin Province
Paris, March 19. - Greek delegates have learned that the Turks recently laid plans for a wholesale massacre in the Province of Aidin, which is largely populated by Greeks, it was announced today.
The plans were revealed through orders captured from the Turks. The first, dated February 25 and signed by the commander of the Aidin gendarmery, reads:
"I call your attention to the attitude of the Greeks toward Mussulmans. We must exterminate this base, miserable nation."
Allies Take Precautions.
The order declared that money and arms have been distributed among well-known comitadjis for this purpose. More is promised if the plans are carried out successfully. The order concludes with the instruction to "act freely with women, regardless of their honour."
A second order said:
"The Greeks may be expected to express openly their sentiments for Greece. Immediately each citizen is expected to do his duty and join in a general massacre. Each should kill four or five Greeks. Oral instruction will be given as to the methods of executing this order."
As soon as the orders were seized allied representatives took necessary precautions.
Source: The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.), 20 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.