Greek Genocide Bibliography

The following news piece was translated from an article in the Greek newspaper EMBROS.

THE SLAUGHTER OF SMYRNA
THE BRAVE STANCE OF THE JAPANESE
JAPANESE PHILANTHROPY

Embros, September 4, 1922 (September 17 on the Gregorian calendar).

It's worth emphasizing the philanthropic and brave stance of the captain of the Japanese ship Tokei-Maru after it managed to save 825 refugees of Greek ethnic origin who were being subjected to Turkish threats.

The Japanese captain, who was moved by the wild massacres and the appeals of the refugees, sent all the ship's lifeboats to take as many refugees as was possible. After surrounding the lifeboats, an officer of the Kemalist Army then threatened to sink them.

The Japanese captain, who was personally troubled by this, then declared to the Kemalist officers, that if even one single hair follicle of the refugees were touched, he would consider it an insult to the Japanese flag and the Japanese Government would demand immediate compensation.

As a result of this threat, the Kemalists consulted with their leaders and were obliged to let the refugees board the Japanese ship.

 

 

A Japanese flagged ship (quite likely the Tokei-Maru) at Smyrna in September 1922.

 

TURKS MASSACRE GREEKS

Riot at Pillage Terrorizes Christians at Aivali.

Evening Ledger-Philadelphia.

December 16, 1914, 4.


  ATHENS, Dec. 16.-- Greek Christians are being massacred by Turks at Aivali, Asia Minor. Houses have been pillaged in the suburb and shops of the town itself have been set on fire. Women and girls have been attacked by the Turks.
  Aivali is a town of 25,000 people on the Gulf of Adramyti. Most of its inhabitant are Greek.

 

Source: Evening public ledger. [volume] (Philadelphia [Pa.]), 16 Dec. 1914. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

 

THE LAST YEARS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Emmanuel Emmanuelids
Former Member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin
Athens 1924.

Emmanuel Emmanuelidis (1867-1943) was born in Kayseri, Asia Minor. He studied law in Constantinople and Athens and later worked in a legal practice in Smyrna. He served as a member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin for a number of years. His memoir The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire was completed in August 1920 and published in 1924.

 

An excerpt from the book:

Around the last quarter of 1913 I went to Istanbul and encountered some unusual figures, people wearing a new type of clothing; velour trousers and black caps. It wasn't until later that I realised these were the famous fedayis, in other words the army the Neo-Turks were creating to execute decisions made against the Christian element in Constantinople and the districts. While they were organizing this force, they were also putting into place suitable propaganda to prepare the Turkish people for the imminent campaign. The media began exciting the public in pages of various daily newspapers with the purpose of igniting the Turkish fire of hatred against the Greeks. The intended message was to have people think that as long as Greeks stayed in the country, Turks would remain poor and the value and life of the Muslim would never be secure and the nation would be in danger. Pictures began circulating of the rulers of the Balkan nations on horseback trampling on the Turkish flag or on the corpses of women and children. Despicable maps were printed where the lost lands were colored black and were posted to schools with revengeful inscriptions on them, the region ceded to Bulgaria having a dark colour, an indication that Greece had to pay for it. Announcers and propagandists were sent to different regions as well as messengers of hate and revenge, the loudest of whom was Omer Nadzi of Smyrna. - Emmanuel Emmanuelidis, pp. 54-54.

 

THE GREEK GENOCIDE 1913-1923: NEW PERSPECTIVES

The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Edited by George Shirnian.
297 pages.

Available at Amazon

 

The deportation, mass killing, and ultimate expulsion of citizens of the Ottoman Empire of Greek ethnicity during the waning years of that empire and its transition to the Turkish Republic are well documented, but perhaps not widely known. The numerous archival sources and secondary works cited in these carefully researched studies are a rich source of evidence and testimony, many not available in the English language. This collected research by a group of scholars, young and old, of different countries and different ethnicities, strives to delve more profoundly into this history, to explore new aspects of it, to broaden our knowledge of what happened, and to deepen our understanding of its significance. As the title states, this book seeks to provide new perspectives on the Genocide of the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire. This book is the most recent effort in a series of activities by the Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, Inc. (AMPHRC), a nonprofit organization whose mission is to research and document the history of the Greeks in Asia Minor, Pontos, Eastern Thrace, and their Diaspora. The book's title, The Greek Genocide, 1913-1923: New Perspectives, describes its aim and its contents. As the AMPHRC has already published several books of original research related to the Greek Genocide, the intention was that this new publication should say something new.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I - THE GENOCIDE AND ITS DOCUMENTARY SOURCES
Mapping Out the Turkish Documents on the Unweaving of Greeks from the Black Sea (The Pontic Genocide, 1919–1923): Serdar Korucu and Emre Can Daglioglu
The Roman Catholic Accounts Testifying to the Pontic Greek Genocide: Theodosios Kyriakidis
The Legal Structure for the Expropriation and Absorption of Armenian and Greek Wealth in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey: Ümit Kurt
The Deportation of Greek Prisoners of War and Interned Civilians, 1922–29: An Untold Story: Stavros Stavridis

PART II - WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE GENOCIDE
British Perspectives on Turkish Atrocities in the Former Ottoman Empire, 1919–1922: The Great Catastrophe: Elisabeth Hope Murray and Amy Grubb
American Emergency Relief to Greece, 1918–1923: An Overview: Nikolaos Ath. Misolidis

PART III - PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO THE GENOCIDE BY THE VICTIMS
Denying the Possibility of Annihilation during Genocide: A Case Study of the Armenians and Greeks, 1915–1922: Tehmine Martoyan
Mass Suicide during the Greek Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, 1913–1923: Hasmik Grigoryan


 

 

ACTIVITIES BY BLACK SEA TURKS
Norwich Bulletin, Conn. December 12, 1912.

Athens, Dec. 11. - It is semi-officially confirmed that Black sea Turks have been burning villages and massacring the inhabitants in the neighborhood of Gallipoli nad Lalos. Similar atrocities have occurred in the Keshani [Kesan] district of Thrace where 300 Greeks have been massacred. The town of Keshani and surrounding villages have been burned.

Source: Norwich bulletin. (Norwich, Conn.), 12 Dec. 1912. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014086/1912-12-12/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Subcategories

The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.

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