THE LAST YEARS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Former Member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin
Emmanuel Emmanuelidis (1867-1943) was born in Kayseri, Asia Minor. He studied law in Constantinople and Athens and later worked in a legal practice in Smyrna. He served as a member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin for a number of years. His memoir The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire was completed in August 1920 and published in 1924.
An excerpt from the book:
Around the last quarter of 1913 I went to Istanbul and encountered some unusual figures, people wearing a new type of clothing; velour trousers and black caps. It wasn't until later that I realised these were the famous fedayis, in other words the army the Neo-Turks were creating to execute decisions made against the Christian element in Constantinople and the districts. While they were organizing this force, they were also putting into place suitable propaganda to prepare the Turkish people for the imminent campaign. The media began exciting the public in pages of various daily newspapers with the purpose of igniting the Turkish fire of hatred against the Greeks. The intended message was to have people think that as long as Greeks stayed in the country, Turks would remain poor and the value and life of the Muslim would never be secure and the nation would be in danger. Pictures began circulating of the rulers of the Balkan nations on horseback trampling on the Turkish flag or on the corpses of women and children. Despicable maps were printed where the lost lands were colored black and were posted to schools with revengeful inscriptions on them, the region ceded to Bulgaria having a dark colour, an indication that Greece had to pay for it. Announcers and propagandists were sent to different regions as well as messengers of hate and revenge, the loudest of whom was Omer Nadzi of Smyrna. - Emmanuel Emmanuelidis, pp. 54-54.
ACTIVITIES BY BLACK SEA TURKS
Norwich Bulletin, Conn. December 12, 1912.
Athens, Dec. 11. - It is semi-officially confirmed that Black sea Turks have been burning villages and massacring the inhabitants in the neighborhood of Gallipoli nad Lalos. Similar atrocities have occurred in the Keshani [Kesan] district of Thrace where 300 Greeks have been massacred. The town of Keshani and surrounding villages have been burned.
Source: Norwich bulletin. (Norwich, Conn.), 12 Dec. 1912. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014086/1912-12-12/ed-1/seq-1/>
TURKS KILLED 120,000
East Oregonian, Sep 16, 1922.
GREEKS, ARMENIANS MASSACRED BY TURKS ACCORDING TO ESTIMATE; U.S. DESTROYERS ARE REMOVING REFUGEES MASSED AT SMYRNA.
British Reinforcements Landed at Constantinople Today While Turkish Cavalry Neared The City; Greek Warship Opened Fire on Turkish Quarter of Smyrna; American Flag Prevented One Massacre; Many Girls Have Been Kidnapped.
Great Britain Has Invited Greece, Rumania, Serbia and British Dominions to Participate in the Defense of Zone Around Constantinople.
Mohammedan Leaders Have Decided Upon a General Moslem Uprising Simultaneously with Attack on Constantinople; White Massacre Expected to Follow Uprising; Russia and Bulgaria Ready to Side with Turks in Event of War.
Unconfirmed estimates from Armenian sources say that seventy thousand Christians were massacred in Smyrna and fifty thousand elsewhere in the path of the Turkish armies. Refugees along Smyrna Bay are estimated at half a million.
Smyrna, Sept. 16, -(U.P)- Twenty-five hundred dead bodies litter the streets, while the harbor waters are dotted with floating corpses as a result of the massacre and fire. Girls from twelve to eighteen were kidnapped. Aged men and women were shot down as they fled from the fire. Six thousand Greeks are reported burned alive.
Excerpts from article appear above. To read entire article click here.
Source: East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR), 16 Sept. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88086023/1922-09-16/ed-1/seq-1/>
THE EXPULSION AND MARTYRDOM OF THE GREEKS OF TURKEY 1914-1918
The Ecumenical Patriarchate documented the persecution of Greeks in Ottoman Turkey during the period 1914-1918 and published its report in 1919 under the title Black Book: The Expulsion and Martyrdom of the Greeks of Turkey 1914-1918 (Μαύρη Βίβλος: Διωγμών και Μαρτυρίων του εν Τουρκία Ελληνισμού 1914-1918).
Part A: Thrace
Part B: East and west Asia Minor
Part C: Pontus
Part D: Patriarchate Documents
Part E: Statistics on Deportations
An abridged version of the Black Book was published in English under the title Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918.
The Patriarchate released a second Black Book in 1920 documenting the continued persecution of Greeks from the Armistice to the end of 1920 under the Kemalists.
Sta Ikhni ton Martyron (In the Traces of the Martyrs)
166 pages, in Greek.
Stavros Rakitzis was born in Findikli (Gr: Foundouklia) which was a group of 3 Greek settlements in the İzmit region of north-western Asia Minor (Turkey). Findikli was situated 16km north of Adapazari and had a population of 3,000 comprising 400 families. The settlements were: Leventkoy, Kantarkoy and Asakoy.
The massacre of the Greeks of Findikli occurred in June of 1920 and was part of a broader series of massacres perpetrated by Kemalist forces in the İzmit region between 1920-1921. According to the British Foreign Office based in Constantinople, the men of Findilki were shot after being locked up in a church, while women were exiled and killed. The Foreign Office reported that 400 men and 30 women were massacred. Rakitzis collated 17 testimonies from survivors of the massacres. An excerpt from the testimony of one survivor appears below.
The testimony of Erifili Moskofidou of Asakoy, Findikli (from page 72).
When they finished with this (taking all our money and jewelry) they started assembling the men in the church of the Virgin Mary and the women and children at the school. After all the jewelry was gathered, Kantercius (the leader of the çetes) told my father not to worry. "I will save you all. I want you also to go and tell all the men to gather at the church so that we can talk to them".
My father thought that they would be safe and that nobody would be hurt, so he went home and told my brother Dimitri to come down from the ceiling where he was hiding with his wife.
My brother had just been married 8 days ago and they only found out in the morning that the village had been surrounded by çetes, so he and his wife both hid in the ceiling of their home. That's why I lost both my brother and my father.
When the çetes finally left from our region, and we went back to our village, we didn't see a village. All we saw was flattened earth and ashes, of houses and of human bodies that had met with pain and horror. Somewhere among all this we found a piece of my brother's shirt clinging to some ashes. It showed that those ashes were those of my brother. We gathered them and buried them. We couldn't find any trace of my father.
Those who were lucky to escape told us later that they tied the men up with ropes in 2's or 3's and forced them into their homes then began shooting them and setting their homes on fire thus burning them while they were still inside half-dead.
The Priest of our village, Father Constantinos, they singled out for specific treatment. They hung him inside the church of the Virgin Mary. He was my uncle.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.