In this section of the website students, educators and the general public can download and read various books and documents related to the Greek Genocide.
BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL
The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora : how the Greeks of Marmora were expelled from their homes and scattered among the villages around Kermasti or the unwritten testament of the Greeks who were forced to embrace Mohamedanism.
Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, 1918?
Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey.
Published by the American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919.
The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920
Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate, 1920
Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922.
Norbury, Natzio and Co Ltd, Manchester and London 1919
Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Download from archive.org
Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
Download from archive.org
Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919.
Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
George Allen and Unwin, London 1922.
Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920.
Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920.
The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Edited by George Shirnian.
Available at Amazon
The deportation, mass killing, and ultimate expulsion of citizens of the Ottoman Empire of Greek ethnicity during the waning years of that empire and its transition to the Turkish Republic are well documented, but perhaps not widely known. The numerous archival sources and secondary works cited in these carefully researched studies are a rich source of evidence and testimony, many not available in the English language. This collected research by a group of scholars, young and old, of different countries and different ethnicities, strives to delve more profoundly into this history, to explore new aspects of it, to broaden our knowledge of what happened, and to deepen our understanding of its significance. As the title states, this book seeks to provide new perspectives on the Genocide of the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire. This book is the most recent effort in a series of activities by the Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, Inc. (AMPHRC), a nonprofit organization whose mission is to research and document the history of the Greeks in Asia Minor, Pontos, Eastern Thrace, and their Diaspora. The book's title, The Greek Genocide, 1913-1923: New Perspectives, describes its aim and its contents. As the AMPHRC has already published several books of original research related to the Greek Genocide, the intention was that this new publication should say something new.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I - THE GENOCIDE AND ITS DOCUMENTARY SOURCES
Mapping Out the Turkish Documents on the Unweaving of Greeks from the Black Sea (The Pontic Genocide, 1919–1923): Serdar Korucu and Emre Can Daglioglu
The Roman Catholic Accounts Testifying to the Pontic Greek Genocide: Theodosios Kyriakidis
The Legal Structure for the Expropriation and Absorption of Armenian and Greek Wealth in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey: Ümit Kurt
The Deportation of Greek Prisoners of War and Interned Civilians, 1922–29: An Untold Story: Stavros Stavridis
PART II - WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE GENOCIDE
British Perspectives on Turkish Atrocities in the Former Ottoman Empire, 1919–1922: The Great Catastrophe: Elisabeth Hope Murray and Amy Grubb
American Emergency Relief to Greece, 1918–1923: An Overview: Nikolaos Ath. Misolidis
PART III - PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO THE GENOCIDE BY THE VICTIMS
Denying the Possibility of Annihilation during Genocide: A Case Study of the Armenians and Greeks, 1915–1922: Tehmine Martoyan
Mass Suicide during the Greek Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, 1913–1923: Hasmik Grigoryan
THE LAST YEARS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Former Member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin
Emmanuel Emmanuelidis (1867-1943) was born in Kayseri, Asia Minor. He studied law in Constantinople and Athens and later worked in a legal practice in Smyrna. He served as a member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin for a number of years. His memoir The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire was completed in August 1920 and published in 1924.
An excerpt from the book:
Around the last quarter of 1913 I went to Istanbul and encountered some unusual figures, people wearing a new type of clothing; velour trousers and black caps. It wasn't until later that I realised these were the famous fedayis, in other words the army the Neo-Turks were creating to execute decisions made against the Christian element in Constantinople and the districts. While they were organizing this force, they were also putting into place suitable propaganda to prepare the Turkish people for the imminent campaign. The media began exciting the public in pages of various daily newspapers with the purpose of igniting the Turkish fire of hatred against the Greeks. The intended message was to have people think that as long as Greeks stayed in the country, Turks would remain poor and the value and life of the Muslim would never be secure and the nation would be in danger. Pictures began circulating of the rulers of the Balkan nations on horseback trampling on the Turkish flag or on the corpses of women and children. Despicable maps were printed where the lost lands were colored black and were posted to schools with revengeful inscriptions on them, the region ceded to Bulgaria having a dark colour, an indication that Greece had to pay for it. Announcers and propagandists were sent to different regions as well as messengers of hate and revenge, the loudest of whom was Omer Nadzi of Smyrna. - Emmanuel Emmanuelidis, pp. 54-54.
ACTIVITIES BY BLACK SEA TURKS
Norwich Bulletin, Conn. December 12, 1912.
Athens, Dec. 11. - It is semi-officially confirmed that Black sea Turks have been burning villages and massacring the inhabitants in the neighborhood of Gallipoli nad Lalos. Similar atrocities have occurred in the Keshani [Kesan] district of Thrace where 300 Greeks have been massacred. The town of Keshani and surrounding villages have been burned.
Source: Norwich bulletin. (Norwich, Conn.), 12 Dec. 1912. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014086/1912-12-12/ed-1/seq-1/>
ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES.
TOWN AND VILLAGES BURNED.
TROOPS COMMANDED TO MURDER AND PILLAGE.
CHRISTIANS KILLED,TORTURED AND OUTRAGED.
The Express and Telegraph, 13 Sep 1913.
The "Daily News" of London has been calling public attention to the grave events which followed on the advance of the Ottoman troops from Chataldja and the re-occupation of the territory wrested from them by Bulgaria last Autumn. The, account given by Mr Noel Buxton of the indiscriminate vengeance and slaughter wrought by the Turks was confirmed two days later by telegrams from Constantinople, which quoted reports from the consuls of the Powers in Thrace and from the assistant bishop of the Metropolitan of Rodosto.
Subsequently the London journal received from a source which places its authenticity beyond question, a summary of this latter report, which is of so terrible a character that it has been necessary to alter or suppress passages describing the worst forms of outrage.
The assistant bishop was a member of a Commission sent out to investigate the charges of massacre which early had begun to reach Constantinople. He had as colleagues four Christians, of whom two were Greeks and two Armenians, and a Turkish mufti. His report is dated July 25 and reached Constantinople on July 30.
Bombs and Petroleum.
"On our arrival at Malgara," he writes, "we saw burnt houses. We found on making enquiries that the Bulgarians left on the 15th, and had not done anything wrong. Then Mehmed Ali and Mustafa Pasha came from Gallipoli with the Turkish troops. They were met by the population, who saluted them.
"On July 17 the army commenced pillaging the houses of Christians. At evening a fire broke out, caused by bombs thrown into Armenian houses by Turks. Petroleum carts went about the streets all night, and soldiers threw petroleum over everything. Panic occurred; people fled from the burning quarter to other houses, but were fired on by troops. Several fled to the bazaar, where thirteen Armenians and five Greeks, were at once killed. At night the town was abandoned to the troops. The bazaar and many Armenian houses were burnt. The wind changed and burnt some Turkish houses. Nearly 300 houses, of which 67 were Greek, 15 Ottoman, and the rest Armenian, were destroyed.
"On the same day, July 17, the army passed to Kalivia. When they entered it a trumpet was sounded and an officer gave the order, 'Plunder and massacre!' (Yagma, Yakun, Kessin). Thereupon the army dispersed and killed all the Christians they met. All the houses were looted. A priest told us that they caught him by the beard, tortured him till he lost consciousness, and robbed him. Women were seized. An eye-witness tells us he saw a girl jump from a window to avoid a Turkish soldier. The Canon of the Greek Monastery, with his priests, took refuge in the belfry; but, seeing the danger, they tried to fly. They were caught by the troops, and ropes were put round their necks, but the canon had his throat cut at once; a priest was also killed. The village and neighborhood are full of corpses of men, women, and children. Many girls allowed themselves to be burned in their houses in order to save themselves from the soldiers. Several of the victims went mad.
"Sakche was a hamlet of seven Greek families. When the army appeared an officer demanded of a man whether the hamlet was Christian or Moslem, and on his reply gave orders to burn it. The order was obeyed. The inhabitants who had not fled were burnt.
"An eyewitness at Haskeuy said that after the entry of the army he heard shots; many women and girls were caught by soldiers and were taken to a windmill. Afterwards they were stripped naked and sent off. A little later Moslem villagers arrived, and pillaged everything belonging to the Christians. Then fire broke out, and the village was burned.
Hunted by Dogs.
"The Bashi-Bazouks had many dogs with them. They hunted refugees, and the Bashi-Bazouks shot them. Our informant saw Christe Lambro, a notable, who had had his eyes gouged out and his nose slit because he would not say where his valuables were hidden."
The report gives details not unlike those of Haskeuy, in regard to the villages of Thimitkeui, Kurtli and Temberitkeui.
The entire news report can be viewed at the source below
Source: ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), p. 6. Retrieved March 25, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210112629
More information about the massacre of Greeks perpetrated by Ottoman authorities in the Malgara region in July 1913 can be found in The Persecution of Greeks in Turkey since the Beginning of the European War by Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos (pp. 32-52).
In this document the following details were recorded:
At Rodosto: 23 Greeks were killed.
At Kalyvia: Wholesale massacre. On the 4th of July the Ottoman Army entered Kalyvia and began forcibly entering homes, firing at citizens and setting fire to houses. Many girls chose to stay in their homes and were burned to avoid being raped. The Abbot, the priest and an assistant were butchered. Wells were chocked with dead bodies. All houses were burnt. The church and monastery were destroyed.
At Haskeuy: The Ottoman Army entered the village on the 4th of July and began firing at men, women and children killing a large number. Women were raped.
At Thymetkioi: Ottoman soldiers entered the village on the 4th of July. The church was stripped and burned. All houses were looted and many were massacred. Women were raped. The village was burnt to ashes.
At Kiourtle: Army entered on the 4th of July and for 2 days began to plunder, beat and murder the residents. They burned most of the houses and partly burned the church. Turks from the region entered and took everything including furniture, cattle and food.
At Temberikioi: The Army entered on the 4th of July and burned the church and 30 houses. They then looted and massacred many of its inhabitants.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.