In this section of the website students, educators and the general public can download and read various books and documents relating to the Greek Genocide.
BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL
♦ Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey. American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919. Download
♦ The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate, 1920. View at slv.vic.gov.au
♦ Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919. Descriotion | Download
♦ Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Livre Noir: La Tragedie Du Pont 1914-1922. Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922. Description | Download from archive.org
♦ The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919. Description | Download from archive.org
♦ Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. Description | Download from archive.org
♦ Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918. Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919. Description | Download from archive.org
♦ The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom. A file of overwhelming evidence, denouncing the misdeeds of the Turks in Asia and showing their responsibility for the horrors of Smyrna. George Allen and Unwin, London 1922. Description | Download from archive.org
♦ Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962. Description | Download
♦ The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920. Download at archive.org
OTHER PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS
♦ The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. File 867.4016/123, American Embassy Constantinople, August 10, 1915.
♦ The Martyrdom of the Pontus and the International Public Opinion (Le Martyre du Pont-Euxin et l' Opinion publique internationale), Geneva 1922.
♦ 1,500,000 Greek Christians Massacred or Deported by Turks, William C. King, The History Associates, Springfield Massachusetts, 1922.
The Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor and in the Pontus. Speech Given Before the Greek Third National Assembly by G. Baltazzi (Minister for Foreign Affairs), May 31, 1922.
♦ The Blight of Asia, by George Horton. View online.
♦ The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey: Report of the International Commission of Inquiry appointed at the request of the Greek Red Cross. London, 1923. View only.
Smyrna, September 1922: Compiled by Lou Ureneck
Alaux, Louis-Paul, and Puaux, René. Le déclin de l'hellénisme. Paris, Payot & Cie, 1916.
American Embassy Constantinople, The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. Doc 867.4016/123, August 10, 1915.
Angelou, Michail. Asia Minor Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Testimony. Triti Opsi, Athens 2013.
Anglo-Hellenic League, The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey: Report of the International Commission of Inquiry appointed at the request of the Greek Red Cross. London, 1923.
Barton, James Levi. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas, 1998.
Barton, James Levi . The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930.
Baum, Wilhelm. The Christian Minorities in Turkey. Kitab-Verlag Klagenfurt-Wien, 2006.
Bierstadt, Edward H. The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.
Bjørnlund Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification. Journal of Genocide Research (2008), 10(1), March, 41–57.
Brown, Carroll N, and Ion, Theodore P. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918.
Central Council of Pontus, Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.
Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.
Couzinos, Efthimios N. Twenty-three years in Asia Minor. Publishers' graphics, LLC, IL.
Delegation of the Pan-Pontic Congress, The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Diamantopoulos Vasilis, A Prisoner of the Turks (1922-1923), Athens 1977.
Dobkin, Marjorie H. Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
Doukas, Stratis. A Prisoner of War’s Story. University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman & Modern Greek Studies, 1999.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press.
Ecumenical Patriarchate. Black Book: The Expulsion and Martyrdom of the Greeks of Turkey, 1914-1918. Constantinople 1919.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
Einstein, Lewis. Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.
Eliou et al. Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Emmanuelidis, Emmanuel. The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire. Athens 1924.
Enepekides, Polychronis. Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.
Fotiadis, Constantinos, ed. The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.
Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.
Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.
Hatzigeorgiou, Christos. To Ortakoy Bithynias: Ai Sfages kai i Ksethemeliosis Afton (Ortakoy, Bithynia: The Massacres and Uprooting), Athens 1965.
Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)
Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.
Kapsi, Yianni. 1922 Ei Mavri Vivlos (1922 The Black Bible), Livani Publishers, 1992.
Karayinnides, Ioannis. The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.
King, William C, ed. King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts, 1922, pp.436-438.
William H. King, Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States, Dec 22, 1921. Washington 1922.
Kontogeorge-Kostos, Sofia. Before the Silence: Archival News Reports of the Christian Holocaust the Begs to be Remembered. Gorgias Press, 2010.
Kyriakides, N.G. The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, New York, 1918?
Lepsius ,Johannes. Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.
Lewis, Bernard. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. United States Naval Institute, 1927.
Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. Norbury, Natzio & Co Ltd, Manchester, London 1919.
Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. Certain Samaritans. The Macmillan Company, 1933.
Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.
Marriott, J.A.R. The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
Midlarsky, Manus I. The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Milton, Giles. Paradise Lost: Smyrna 1922. The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance. Sceptre, 2009.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
Murray, Arthur D. Black Sea: A Naval Officer's Near East Experience. Edited by Renee Heideman. Kindle Digital, 2014.
Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.
Oeconomos Lysimachos. The Tragedy of the Christian Near East. The Anglo-Hellenic League, London 1923.
L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.
Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.
Pissanos Antonios. Prisoners of Kemal. Prodos 1978.
Puaux, René. Les derniers Jours de Smyrne. Paris, 1923.
Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans.Paris, 1922.
Rendel, George W. Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice. British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources.”
Sartiaux, Félix. Le Sac de Phocée: et l'expulsion des Grecs Ottomans D'Asie-Mineure en Juin 1914. Paris 1914.
Sartiaux, Félix. Phocaea 1913-1920. The account of Félix Sartiaux. Rizario Idrima, 2008.
Schaller, Dominik J, ed. Zimmerer, Jürgen, ed. Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge, 2009.
Shaw, S.J. and Shaw, E.K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Shenk, Robert. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press, 2012.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012.
Shirinian, George N, ed. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books, 2017.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Greek Genocide 1913-1923: New Perspectives. The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
Soteriou, Dido. Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.
Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1917.
Suny, Ronald G, ed. and Gocek, Fatma M, ed. and Naimark, Norman M, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011.
The Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question: memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. The Hesperia Press, London, 1920.
Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan. Carolina Academic Press, 1st edition, 2010.
Tsirkinidis, Harry. At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
Tsoukalas C. The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Tusan, Michelle. Smyrna's Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide and the Birth of the Middle East. University of California Press, 2012.
Ureneck, Lou. The Great Fire: One American's mission to rescue victims of the Twentieth century's first Genocide. Ecco, 2015.
Venezis, Elias. To Noumero 31328: To Biblio tis Sklavias. N. Theofanidis & S. Lampadaridis, Mytilene 1931.
Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.
Williams, John. Deutschland über Allah! Germany, Gallipoli and The Great War, Australian Scholarly Publishing 2016.
Wuarin, Albert. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International Public Opinion, Geneva 1922.
Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.
Smyrna 1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
Based on the book The Number 31328: The Book of Slavery by Elias Venezis. Venezis's memoire details his experience as a prisoner enslaved in a work battalion during the Greek Genocide.
America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide. Availability
A PRISONER OF THE TURKS (1922-1923)
In July of 1921, Vasilis Diamantopoulos was sitting his 3rd year exams for Law at the University of Athens when he was called to the colors and sent to Asia Minor. He arrived there in the same month and served in the 18th infantry division of the Hellenic army. In September 1922 he was captured and became one of the many thousands of Greek prisoners of war in Turkey.
In the 7 months he was captive, aside from being forced to do hard labor, he witnessed executions of prisoners and was subjected to beatings and humiliation by the Turkish public and his captives. In that 7 months, he was only allowed to bathe 3 times. The majority of the men in his battalion died of exhaustion, dysentery and exposure to cold. He arrived in Greece 7 months later, a skeleton of a man.
In 1932, a Commission of Inquiry investigated the treatment of Greek prisoners in Turkey during the genocide and concluded that their treatment was a flagrant violation of the laws of war and some acts were in contravention of the Geneva Convention. It's believed that over 100,000 Greeks were taken as prisoners of war, the majority of them perished.
Further reading: The Treatment of the Greek Prisoners in Turkey
PRISONERS OF KEMAL
Prodos 1978 (and other publishers)
Antonios Pissanos was captured at Smyrna by Kemalist forces in September 1922 and made a prisoner of war. He was placed in a group of 3,000 men and sent to the interior of Turkey. Along the way many of the prisoners were slaughtered while most of those who survived later died of disease and malnutrition.
In the chapter titled A Real Slaughter of Humans, Pissanos recounts when Turkish guards pause the group somewhere in the interior and begin a mass slaughter of prisoners. Pissanos writes:
Meanwhile the other Turks have gone rabid. They start grabbing prisoners and slaughtering them. A soldier orders a prisoner to start running. The unfortunate man stands hesitantly. The soldier then hits him hard with a whip. The prisoner starts running like a crazed man. They lift their riles and shoot him. Within a few metres, he falls to the ground, dead.
After that celebration, the Turks ordered us to stand. "Dont be afraid" they told us, "we won't touch anybody else." We got up. Beside me was Kontaksi. The Turkish Cretan who was doing all the slaughtering approached us. I didn't dare lift my head to look at him. I heard him saying: "Come here you." I thought he was talking to me. I felt that my last hour had arrived. But, he was talking to the unfortunate Kontaksi, the telegraph worker. He grabbed him by the hand and says to him: "Come here giaour (unbeliever), let me tell you something." He then takes him two metres away from the line. "You look Armenian, I can tell by your face" he says to him. Kontaksi is shocked and takes exception as he realises that there's a chance Greeks might be spared, but not Armenians. But the Turk doesn't listen. He jumps on top of Kontaksi like a rabid animal and grounds him. Then immediately, like a bolt of lightning he pulls out a knife, a knife that had been sunk into the flesh of many Christians that day, and begins to stab his victim mercilllesly as his victim screams and begs, in vain. The wicked man doesn't stop until he notices that the injuries were so severe that death was inevitable. He turned to us and said: "That jerk was Armenian." But who would dare tell him he was wrong at that moment? I will never forget those final moments, and the torture that the unlucky Kontaksi had to endure.
THE TRAGEDY OF THE CHRISTIAN NEAR EAST
By Lysimachos Oeconomos
Appendix: The Smyrna Holocaust by Rev. Charles Dobson, M.C.
The Anglo-Hellenic League, London 1923. 29 pages.
Dr Lysimachos Oeconomos was lecturer in Modern Greek and Byzantine History at the University of London, King's College. Following the burning of Smyrna in September 1922, he put together a collection of press reports and witness accounts of Turkish atrocities which was published under the title The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom. He was also the author of the above pamphlet published by the Anglo-Hellenic League in 1923 titled The Tragedy of the Christian Near East. The pamphlet includes an Appendix on the Smyrna Holocaust by Rev. Charles Dobson (1886-1930) who was the Anglican Chaplain at Smyrna in September 1922 when the city was destroyed by fire. In 1924 Dobson was a key witness in a trial to determine the cause of the fire.
From the Appendix:
In the back streets there was, in some parts, a great running of terror-stricken people, carrying children and bedding; some of them had been injured; one man had his face smashed and his mouth bleeding. There was constantly shooting in the back streets, followed by screams and panic-stricken running. The Turks were openly looting everywhere. One man was shot through both thighs, one of which was fractured, his screams were unheeded by the terror-stricken people. The general atmosphere was terrible, and I began to fear that we might have left our retreat till too late. The fires broke out after that afternoon. I was astonished when in Italy, and again here in France, to find how unwilling some circles were to believe the culpability of the Turkish troops in the burning of Smyrna. It seems to me that the firing of the city by the fanatic element of the Turkish Army was the natural culmination of the breakdown of restraints imposed by the military necessities, and of the unbridled indulgence of xenophobia. Rev. Charles Dobson, p. 27.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.