TURKS KILLED 120,000
Sep 16, 1922.
This is an excerpt of the article
GREEKS, ARMENIANS MASSACRED
BY TURKS ACCORDING TO ESTIMATE;
U.S. DESTROYERS ARE REMOVING
REFUGEES MASSED AT SMYRNA.
British Reinforcements Landed at Constantinople Today While
Turkish Cavalry Neared The City; Greek Warship Opened
Fire on Turkish Quarter of Smyrna; American Flag Pre-
vented One Massacre; Many Girls Have Been Kidnapped.
Great Britain Has Invited Greece, Rumania,
Serbia and British Dominions to Participate in
the Defense of Zone Around Constantinople.
Mohammedan Leaders Have Decided Upon a General Moslem
Uprising Simultaneously with Attack on Constantinople;
White Massacre Expected to Follow Uprising; Russia
and Bulgaria Ready to Side with Turks in Event of War.
Unconfirmed estimates from Armenian sources say that seventy thousand
Christians were massacred in Smyrna and fifty thousand elsewhere in the path
of the Turkish armies. Refugees along Smyrna Bay are estimated at half a
Smyrna, Sept. 16, - (U.P) - Twen-
ty-five hundred dead bodies litter the
streets, while the harbor waters are
dotted with floating corpses as a re-
sult of the massacre and fire. Girls
from twelve to eighteen were kidnap-
ped. Aged men and women were shot
down as they fled from the fire. Six
thousand Greeks are reported burned
Source: East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR), 16 Sept. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88086023/1922-09-16/ed-1/seq-1/>
The Great Fire | Smyrna September 1922
La Mort de Smyrne (The Death of Smyrna), René Puaux
16 Sep 1922: Turks Killed 120,000, East Oregonian
15 Sep 1922: Turks Kill Women and Babes, The Evening Star
18 Sep 1922: Smyrna Ablaze. Stories of Massacre
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Einstein, Lewis. Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.
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Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.
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Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.
Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.
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Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.
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Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.
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Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
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L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.
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1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
This film 1922 is a portrayal of events during the final phase of the Greek Genocide, and in particular the events following the Smyrna Holocaust in September 1922.
America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide.
The following books and documents are freely available to read online.
|The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. File 867.4016/12. 1915.||Read|
|Stuermer, H. Two War Years in Constantinople. London, 1917.||Read|
|Morgenthau, H. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Doubleday 1918.||Read|
|The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. 1918?||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the Beginning of the European War. 1918.||Read|
|Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament... 1919.||Read|
|Persecution & Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). 1919.||Read|
|The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. London 1919.||Read|
|The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories. Manchester 1919.||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War. New York, 1919.||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918. 1919.||Read|
|The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference... 1920.||Read|
|Ward M. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London 1922.||Read|
|Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.||Read|
|King W. Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor. Washington 1922.||Read|
|The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom.London 1922.||Read|
|The Martyrdom of the Pontus and the International Public Opinion. Geneva 1922.||Read|
|William C. King. 1,500,000 Greek Christians Massacred or Deported by Turks. 1922.||Read|
|The Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor and in the Pontus. 1922.||Read|
|Anglo-Hellenic League. The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey. London, 1923.||Read|
|Lovejoy, E. Certain Samaritans. Macmillan Co. 1933.||Read|
|The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York 1924.||Read|
|Horton, G. The Blight of Asia. Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.||Read|
|Bjørnlund M, The 1914 Cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a Case of Violent Turkification||Read|
Near East Relief Documents
|Speakers' Handbook of American Committee for Relief in the Near East. 1918.
|The New Near East. Vol. 4, 1920.||Read|
|The New Near East. Vol. 6-7, 1920-1921.||Read|
|The New Near East. Vol. 7. 1921-1922.||Read|
|The New Near East. v. 6-8, 1920/21-1922/23.||Read|
|Hand Book. Near East Relief. New York 1920.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. II, No. 42-51. 1920.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. III, Jan-Dec 1921.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. IV. 1922.||Read|
|The Medical Work of the Near East Relief (1919-1920). New York 1923.||Read|
|Near East Relief. A Review for 1922. New York 1923.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Report to Congress for 1924. New York 1925.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Report to Congress for 1925. New York 1926.||Read|
|Story of Near East relief (1915-1930) an interpretation by James L. Barton. N.Y 1930.
|Félix Sartiaux. Le Sac de Phocée. Paris 1914.||Read|
|L’Extermination des Chrétiens en Turquie. Lausanne 1918.
|Metr. Chysostomos. Les Persécutions des Chrétiens. 1919.||Read|
|René Puaux. Les Derniers Jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923.
|Οι Ανθελληνικοί Διωγμοί εν Τουρκία από της Κηρύξεως του Ευρωπαϊκού Πολέμου. 1917.||Read|
|Μαύρη Βίβλος Διωγμών και Μαρτυρίων του εν Τουρκία Ελληνισμού (1914-1918). 1919.||Read|
|Οι ανθελληνικοί διωγμοί εν Τουρκία από του 1908 μέχρι του 1921. 1921.||Read|
|Ενεπεκίδης Π. Οι Διωγμοί των Ελλήνων του Πόντου (1908-1918). 1962.||Read|
|Αγτζίδης Β. Η Γενοκτονία στην Ανατολή [Genocide in the East]. 2013.||Read|
THE GENOCIDE OF THE GREEKS IN TURKEY
SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES FROM THE NICOMEDIA (IZMIT) MASSACRES OF 1920-1921
By Kostas Faltaits
Edited and translated by Ellene Phufas-Jousma and Aris Tsilfidis
With a prologue by Tessa Hofmann
Cosmos Publishing 2016
The Izmit Massacres were a series of massacres perpetrated by Kemalist forces on Greek communities in the region east of Istanbul historically known as Nicomedia between 1920-1921. According to one report, at least 32 Greek villages were looted or burned and more than 12,000 Greeks were massacred.
In March of 1921, journalist Kostas Faltaits arrived in Asia Minor (today’s Turkey) sent by newspaper Embros to cover Greece’s movements in the Greco-Turkish War. By the time he arrived in the region of Nicomedia (today’s İzmit) - a region inhabited by a large number of Greek, Armenian and Circassian communities - Kemalist forces had already set fire to many of the surrounding towns and villages, leaving behind a trail of death and destruction. Faltaits came face to face with the fleeing survivors of these massacres, and was able to collect these valuable and graphic eye-witness testimonies which were published in both Greek and French at the time. Their stories include the mass burning of civilians in their churches and homes, rape and sexual torture of women, and the burning of children alive. The book also includes the observations of the Armenian Metropolitan of Nicomedia, Stephan Hovakimian.
Translated for the very first time in English and with a prologue by Tessa Hofmann, this edition puts into perspective the claims of mutual atrocities which both Greeks and Turks were accused of in this region. The events described in the book will shed some light into just one of the many chapters of the Greek Genocide, a genocide which claimed the life of approximately one million Greeks living in the former Ottoman Empire.
The current English translation of testimonies collected by Kostas Faltaits represents [...] an excellent initiative which deserves to be extended to the methodic examination of the three main phases of the extermination of the Greeks of Asia Minor. Prof. Raymond Kévorkian, historian.
It is a book that will benefit all those who are interested in the fate of the Christians during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and can also be very helpful to younger generations who are studying those events in high school or in colleges and universities. - Alexander Kitroeff, Professor of History.
..this new publication in English stands as a small but important victory for those who study genocides in the sad and ever-present need to understand and try to prevent them. Faltaits’s witness reports of the Nicomedia (Izmit) massacres will now hold up much longer against what Lincoln called 'the silent artillery of time.' Michael Kalafatas.
The accounts by Greek survivors in The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey, of massacres, torture, rape, theft, and the destruction of villages, and the brutalizers' sheer pleasure in inflicting such suffering on fellow humans, attests to the depths to which humans are capable of descending. Thea Halo, author of Not Even My Name.
This is an important document about the Greek Genocide and deserves to be placed alongside other works of the 1920's such as the Black Book of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, George Horton's the Blight of Asia, and Edward Hale Bierstadt's the Great Betrayal. Theodore Karakostas, activist, author, writer.
With moving testimonies contextualized with scholarly and journalistic commentary, this book improves immeasurably our understanding of the Anatolian Greek genocide by Kemalist militants. The book helps to correct the omission of the Greek experience from the Armenian genocide literature. Hannibal Travis, Professor of Law.
Kosta Faltaits’s book based on the evidence of the survivors’ accounts brilliantly exposes the policy of the Kemalists to exterminate the Greek population of Nicomedia. The author using remarkable first-person accounts presents the chilling history of how the Turks tried by all means to eliminate one more Christian community of their country. Anahit Khosroeva, Ph.D.
As any researcher will tell you, primary source material is an invaluable resource. A first-hand account of any event provides direct context, placing the reader right into the time and place of the event in a way that a secondary source, such as a history book or article, cannot. To have primary source material written by a journalist, a person who writes well and is trained to observe, is priceless. ‘The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey’, is such a document. Hariklia Heristanidis, author.
- Theodore Karakostas. Assyrian Information Management. Also published in The Armenian-Mirror Spectator, Nov 25, 2017. Read
- Prof. Raymond Kévorkian. Études arméniennes contemporaines, Volume 9, September 2017, pp. 247-250. Read
- Michael Kalafatas. American Hellenic Institute Policy Journal, Volume 9, Spring 2018. Read
- Alexander Kitroeff. The Armenian Weekly, June 19, 2019. Read
- Hariklia Heristanidis. Neos Kosmos, September 3, 2019. Read
- Greek City Times, May 2020. Read
- Dan Georgakas, The National Herald, August 21, 2020. Read
- The History Author Show, August 24, 2020. Listen
* Editor’s Note * Prologue * Introduction * Foreword * Fulazik * The Songs of Fulazik * The Last Survivor of Nicaea * Kara Tepe * Fountouklia * Konzes * Lefkes * The Teacher of Otakioy * Giaour Ali * The Armenians * The Exodus of Karasou * Epilogue * Biography: Konstantinos Faltaits (1891-1944) * Publications * Index
About the author
Kostas Faltaits (1891-1944) was a renowned Greek journalist and author. He worked for a number of major Athenian newspapers. He was born in Smyrna (today Izmir) in 1891 but in the same year his family moved to the island of Skyros. He studied Law and Philology at the University of Athens but in 1910 began his career in journalism. More about the author here.
The book was originally published in Greek in 1921 under the title These are the Turks: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia Massacres (Αυτοί είναι οι Τούρκοι: Aφηγήματα των Σφαγών της Νικομήδειας). It was published in French in 1922 & 1923 under the title Voila les Turcs! : recits des massacres d'Ismidt.
GREEK PRIESTS BURIED ALIVE BY THE TURKS
Cable Message From Athens Tells of Inhuman Treatment
of Greeks at Aivaly; All Who Remained There Massacred.
Grand Forks Herald N.D.
2 November 1922.
Washington, Nov. 2. - The Greek metropolitan and ten
priests, captured by the Turks at Aivaly, were buried alive be-
cause they refused to embrace Islamism, according to a cable-
gram received today from Athens by a Greek legation.
Word also has been received in Athens the message said,
that all Greeks who remained in Aivaly and on the islands of
Moschonissia have been massacred and that wells in the vicinity
"are filled with bodies of young girls," who drowned them-
selves to escape the Turks.
Christians in Smyrna between the ages of 18 and 60, the le-
gation was informed, have been deported and forced to hard la-
bor, hundreds dying from hunger and fatigue.
Source: Grand Forks herald. (Grand Forks, N.D.), 02 Nov. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some news reports.