Overview

After the Smyrna fire in September 1922, men of military age were torn away from their wives and children and
led away in groups for deportation to the interior. The National Geographic Magazine, Nov 1925, p. 562.

The Greek Genocide (or Ottoman Greek Genocide) refers to the systematic extermination of the native Greek (Rûm) subjects of the Ottoman Empire before, during and after World War I (1914-1923). It was instigated by two successive governments of the Ottoman Empire; the İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti (Committee of Union and Progress  or CUP) also known as the Young Turks and the Turkish Nationalist movement under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. It included massacres, forced deportations and death marches, summary expulsions, boycotts, rape, forced conversion to Islam, conscription into labor battalions, arbitrary executions and destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments. It is likely that the victim toll of the Greek Genocide was somewhere in the vicinity of 1 - 1.5 million. 

The New York Times, January 13, 1915.

The Greek Genocide began in earnest in 1914 in Eastern Thrace where Greek communities were forcibly and violently expelled from the country or deported to the interior of Asia Minor. Other measures used to persecute Greeks in this region were the boycotting of Greek businesses, killings, heavy taxation, seizure of property and prevention from working on their lands. In the Spring and Summer of 1914, the ethnic cleansing of Greeks along the western shoreline of Asia Minor was carried out. These operations, including those in Eastern Thrace, were planned and executed by the CUP using regular and irregular forces including members of the CUP's paramilitary unit, the Special Organization (Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa).

Bendigo Independent, May 19, 1914.

Following the outbreak of the First World War, Greek men aged between 21-45 were forcibly conscripted into labor battalions (Amele Taburları) where the majority of them perished under appalling conditions doing hard labor with little food or water. Beginning in 1915, under the direction of German military personnel, the CUP deported many Greek communities under the pretext of military necessity. Deportees were not permitted to take anything with them and the goods in their shops were often later sold by Ottoman authorities. They were deported to the interior and to Muslim villages where they were often forced to choose between Islam or death. In most cases - before deportations took place - Ottoman gendarmes (police) and çetes (armed irregulars) seized money and valuables from Greek communities, committed massacres and burnt churches and schools. According to figures compiled by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, by 1918, 774,235 Greeks had been deported from their homes, many of them to the interior of Turkey, never to be seen again.

Greeks living in other parts of the Empire such as the Levant, were also targeted. Between 1915-1918, a large portion of the Christian communities living on Mount Lebanon were starved to death. The famine was caused by a food blockade orchestrated by Djemal Pasha.  

The New York Times, July 10, 1921

Following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the First World War, prominent leaders of the CUP were issued death sentences in Ottoman Courts-Martial for their role in organizing atrocities during the war. But the post-war formation of the Turkish Nationalist movement under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk interrupted proceedings to bring the perpetrators to justice. The period 1919-1922, often referred to as the Kemalist Phase, saw a continuation of the CUP policy of extermination. In the region of Pontus, the Kemalists burned countless Greek villages and sent men, women and children to the interior where large numbers perished. In many instances, Greek churches were burnt while Greeks were locked inside. In the region of İzmit alone, Kemalist forces burned over 30 Greek villages and massacred over 12,000 Greeks while in September 1922, at the completion of post-WW1 hostilities between the Hellenic Repubic and the Ottoman Empire, the Kemalist Nationalists marked their triumph by burning the city of Smyrna (today Izmir) to the ground and committing a large scale massacre of the city's Greek and Armenian population.

 Remembrance Days:

April 6 (Eastern Thrace region)
May 19 (Pontus region)
September 14 (Asia Minor as a whole).

View Recognitions

 
Last edited: 16 Sep 2020  

Interactive Google map of massacres compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center. Zoom in or out. Click on individual location to read details. List appears below in chronological order.

The Greek Genocide involved the persecution of native Greeks living in the Ottoman Empire. While deportation to the arid interior of Turkey was the more effective way to liquidate Greek communities en masse, small and large-scale massacres were also committed. Below is a list of known massacres perpetrated during the Greek Genocide. The list was compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center and is not complete. While the list represents a substantial portion of the massacres perpetrated, the project is ongoing and more massacres will be added as they are documented. A massacre is generally defined as an indiscriminate and brutal killing of many people. In order to better define 'many people' we have chosen 20 as being the minimum number of people killed in order for a mass killing to qualify as a massacre, unless the massacre involved children, notables, wealthy citizens or religious clergy.  

Click here to view list of massacres from 1920-1923 

LIST AND MAP OF MASSACRES FROM 1912-1919

YEAR MONTH LOCATION DETAIL SOURCE
1912 Nov Ayvalik The Ottoman Army massacred 167 Christian men, women and children at the Greek village Aivali (near Lüleburgaz) and raped girls and women. - Turkish Atrocities. (1912, November 2). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 17. Retrieved March 26, 2018,

- Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.
1912 Dec Gelibolu Ottoman troops massacre Greeks at Gelibolu (Gallipoli). The North West Post (Tasmania, Australia). 11 Dec 1912, p.3.
1912 Dec Mitylene Turks committ massacre of Christians at Mitylene. MASSACRE ON MITYLENE. (1912, December 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 19. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
1912   Keşan 300 Greeks massacred Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.
1913 Jan Kumburgaz A Turkish fleet with 500 troops lands at Kumburgaz (Gr: Economio) and orders all young men over the age of 15 years to the sea-shore. 140 males comply and are massacred. Parish priest Neofytos is burnt alive. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press, p. 30.
1913   Kircasalih Kircasalih (Mega Zaloufi): 130 inhabitants killed when Ottoman forces reoccupied the town. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.13.
1913 Apr Kastellorizo Turks from Asia Minor landed on the island which was mainly inhabited by Greeks, massacring Christians and violating women. CHRISTIANS MASSACRED. (1913, April 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
1913 Jul Tekirdağ The Ottoman Army killed 39 Greeks after reoccupying the town. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 60.
1913 Jul Gönence The Ottoman Army entered Gönence (Gr: Kalyvia) and looted all the houses and killed all the Christians they met. The village and neighborhood was full of corpses of men, women and children. ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), p. 6. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
1913 Jul Malkara Turkish soldiers massacre 300 Greeks at a rich monastery. Eighteen Greek villages also wiped out. Turks Massacre Greeks in Thrace. The New York Times, 28 July 1913, p. 3.
1913 Jul Hasköy The Ottoman Army entered the village on the 4th of July and began firing at men, women and children kiling a large number. Women were raped. The whole village was then burned. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp39-40.
1913 Jul Hemit Ottoman soldiers entered Hemit (Gr: Thymitkioi) on the 4th of July. The church was stripped and burned. All houses were looted and many were massacred. Women were raped. The village was burnt to ashes. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp40-41.
1913 Jul Hayrabolu Ottoman soldiers entered Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis) and gathered all the women and girls from 8 through to 75 years of age then raped and tortured them. Some were mutilated and had their limbs and parts of their bodies cut off. Men were also tortured to death and others massacred. Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis). Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 45-47.
1913 Jul Kürtüllü The Ottoman Army entered Kürtüllü (Gr: Kiourtli) on the 4th of July and for 2 days began to plunder, beat and murder the residents. They burned most of the houses and partly burned the church. Turks from the region entered and took everything including furniture, cattle and food. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.
1913 Jul Bayramtepe The Army entered Bayramtepe (Gr: Temberikioi) on the 4th of July and burned the church and 30 houses. They then looted and massacred many of its inhabitants. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.
1914 May Seyrek The village, located in the district of Menemen, was besieged by thousands of armed Turks before it was set fire to and its inhabitants massacred. Women and children were literally butchered. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. pp. 79-80.
1914 May Didymoteicho Massacre of women and children. Those trying to escape the massacre crossed the Maritsa (Meriç) River and drowned after being shot at. SLAUGHTER OF GREEKS. (1914, May 19). The Bendigo Independent (Vic. : 1891 - 1918), p. 5.
1914 May Yenice Greeks from the village Yenice (Gr: Intzekioi) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.
1914 May Ormanlı Greeks from the village Ormanlı (Gr: Kastampoli) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.
1914 Jun Ulucak Two sargeants and 15-20 bandits invaded the town and looted and ransacked homes. Corpses of humans were found in the plains surrounding Ulucak. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 127-128.
1914 Jun Foça Armed irregulars stormed the town of Foça (Gr: Phocaea). With the assistance of Ottoman officials approximately 100 Greeks including priests and children were massacred. The town was then looted. The remainder fled. GREEKS MASSACRED (1914, June 17). The Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1923), p. 1 (4 P.M. EDITION). Retrieved November 4, 2017.

- Bjørnlund, M. Cited from The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012, pp153-154.
c.1914   Alaşehir  25 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Kula 32 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Salihli 28 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
c.1914   Denizli 35 people massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 87.
1914 Jul Uzunada Turkish regular troups drive 16 Greeks to the town square where they are butchered. Two girls (14 and 17 y.o) successively violated by 25 soldiers). GREEKS MASSACRED. (1914, July 22). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), p. 6. Retrieved September 6, 2017.

-Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p 86.
1914 Dec Erzurum Greeks and Armenians hanged without trial. Their corpses suspended from lamp posts for weeks. Turks passing by spat on their bodies and compelled the Christians to do likewise. POSITION IN ERZERUM: Armenians and Greeks Hanged by the Turks. (1914, December 15). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
1914 Dec Ayvalik Greeks massacred at Ayvalik. Houses pillaged and shops burned. GREEKS MASSACRED BY TURKS. The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.), 17 Dec. 1914, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Mar Burhaniye 60 Christian families massacred at Burhaniye (Gr: Kemeri). MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS' FURY. The Daytona daily news. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Mar Ayvalik Massacre of 40 Greeks. MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS' FURY. The Daytona Daily News. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
1915 Apr Gümüshane 4,000 Greeks from the region escaped from Turkish military authorities and sought refuge in the forests of Gümüshane . Hard pressed by hunger, some managed to flee towards Russia while the remainder were caught, tortured then massacred, their bodies thrown into the Pyxites River. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p109.
1915 Jun Bodrum 18 inhabitants and one girl aged 16 slaughtered. Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.30.
1915 Jul Kiosteniou 18 Greeks butchered at Kiosteniou. Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.33.
1915 Sep İzmit Turks set fire to İzmit and conduct a general massacre of the population. TURKISH MASSACRE. (1915, September 6). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), p. 7. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
1915 Nov Gölcük The village was surrounded by soldiers and gendarmes who opened fire causing villagers to flee to the mountains. They then set fire to the village. As villagers fled in terror, 30 were shot and killed at point blank range. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.40.
c.1916   Tsiakharanton (Gr) Turks entered the village and slaughtered 40-50 people. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, p. 376.
1916 Apr Edirne Massacre of 400 Greeks. GREEK MASSACRES. (1916, April 27). The Evening Telegraph (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1901 - 1921), p. 5. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212815360
1916 Apr İzmir Massacre of 200 Greeks in the İzmir (Gr: Smyrna) district. MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1916, April 22). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 - 1928), p. 7. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article152760190
1916 Apr Vazelon Monastery The Vazelon Monastery in Maçka was the sight of a massacre of 487 people, mostly women and children who had been hiding in the forest. They were captured, violated within the monastery, and then massacred. Men were also murdered. The church was then burnt and destroyed, its furniture carried away, its bibles and archives burnt to cinders. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 111.
1916 Apr Trabzon Hundreds of Greeks and Armenians massacred in the Christian quarter of Trabzon. MASSACRE OF CHRISTIANS BEFORE EVACUATION OF TREBIZOND (1916, April 21). Daily Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1910 - 1924), p. 5. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article124874666
1916   Thersa (Gr) 2,000 men from seven villages around Thersa (possible location Kiremitli) fled to the nearby mountain Mezire kagia on a cliff named Agrotsal and hid inside a cave for months. The Turkish army surrounded the cave and demanded they all come out but they were afraid and refused to do so. Half of them were later killed or died from hunger or disease. Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, pp. 320-321.
1916   Söğüteli At Sümüklü (Gr: Simikli) women fled from marauding Turks and threw themselves and their children into a river to avoid being caught. Other women were killed and then thrown into the river. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.114.
1917 Jan Kaynarca The Turks burnt the village and four other surrounding Greek villages and massacred 250 residents. Exact location unknown.
Assumed location on map.
The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.512.
1917   Akkaya Just prior to Easter 1917, Topal Osman Ağa set fire to the church while congregants were inside. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p.147.
1917 Apr Kerpiçli Ottoman soldiers burn down the lower precinct of the village then conduct a large scale massacre of its inhabitants. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p. 350.
1917 Aug Ordu Women, children and elderly men were towed several miles out to sea and dumped overboard. None survived. 1.000.000 GREEKS KILLED: The New York Times. Jan 1, 1918. Retrieved February 17, 2018
1917 Aug Karaperçin Greeks from the village Kertsembe fled to Karaperçin. Ottoman forces there committed a large scale massacre of men, women and children and burnt all the homes. One eye witness saw over 100 dead bodies most of them with knife wounds. Some had their severed genitals cut off and placed in their mouths. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek. p. 415.
1917 Oct Bafra After distributing arms to Turkish peasants, Greeks, including children were massacred. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 124.
1918   Mount Lebanon Between 1915-1918, approximately 200,000 Christians were starved to death during the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, many of them Rûm (Greeks). The population of Mount Lebanon was predominantly Christian and ~80,000 Greeks lived there. The famine was caused by a food blockade to the region orchestrated by Young Turk, Djemal Pasha. Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXVI,
Issue 8504, 18 July 1916, Page 5.  
1918   Sanoyia (Gr) Early one morning at the beginning of 1918, çetes arrived at Sanoyia. They slaughtered women, raped girls, deported the males and took farm animals and belongings from houses. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018, p. 364.
1918 Apr Kars The Ottoman Army advancing in the Caucasus conducted wholesale massacres of Greeks, Armenians and American missionaries. MASSACRES BY TURKS. (1918, April 30). Hamilton Spectator (Vic: 1870-1918), p. 4. Retrieved February 16, 2018,
from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119501423
1918   Rize Turkish bands attacked Rize and massacred some of the population. Schools, churches and houses were plundered and demolished. Residents were compelled to emigrate to Russia. Out of 2,000 people only 4 remained. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 113.
1919 Mar Buca Reports of many murders and robberies by bands of Turks against Greeks in the region. The bodies of 50 Greeks found decapitated and partially burned. Great Unrest Reported Over Disposition of Smyrna Region, The New York Times, 21 March 1919.
1919 Jun Nazilli Massacre of several Greek families. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.10. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Atça 47 Greeks massacred and the priest burned alive. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Köşk 47 people massacred in Köşk, including a doctor and the priest, who was first blinded and had his nose and ears cut off. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Umurlu More than 90 Greeks massacred at Umurlu and 70 bodies found. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Jun Karapelit All the young children of the village were taken to a place close to the Black Sea near the village Hocaali. They were then placed in a circle and shot while musical instruments were played loudly. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.293.
1919 Jun Aydin Massacre of approx. 1,500-2,000 Greeks by Kemalist forces in June 1919. Hundreds of bodies found burnt alive, some after having been raped, and bodies found thrown into wells. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. Document 3, No 33, p.12. Web. 20/07/2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919 Aug Çantaköy Turkish gendarmes and bandits surround Greek town of Çantaköy (Gr: Tsento) and massacre Greeks. Turks Massacre Greeks, Alexandria Gazette, 12 Aug 1919, p.3.
c.1919   Manisa 115 Greeks massacred by Turkish gangs in the Manisa region. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
c.1919   Alaşehir 47 murders reported in Alaşehir and neighboring regions. Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.26. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919   Halitpaşa Mass slaughter of Greeks at Halitpaşa (Gr: Papazli). Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf>
1919   Ilgin 7-8 wealthy elected Greek notables were hanged by Turkish authorities. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.363.
1919 Summer Kaklik 15 wealthy Greek men from Honaz are shot at the gorge of Kaklik deresi and their valuables taken. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.417.
1919   Yenipazar 70 Greeks massacred and thrown in the Meander river. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.177.
1919   Ankara Late 1919 or 1920: Notables and elders taken to a nearby location and massacred. The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.377.

Click here to view list of massacres from 1920-1923 


Some of the sources used to compile the list:  

- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919.
- Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople: Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek.  
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Western Seashores of Pontus and Paphlagonia. Volume E. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2016. In Greek.
- Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British Reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
- Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016
- Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans. Paris 1922.  
- Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923.
- Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922.
- Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Eastern Seashores of Pontus. Volume D. Center of Asia Minor Studies, 2nd ed, Athens 2018. In Greek

 

 

Mustafa Kemal ‘Atatürk’ was the consummator of the Greek Genocide. He was born in 1881 at Thessaloniki, Greece (then part of the Ottoman Empire).  He attended the Ottoman Military School in Constantinople and graduated in 1905. Around 1908 he joined the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) party. Kemal was an officer of the Turkish Army and founded the Turkish Nationalist Movement (the Kemalists) by regrouping the Ottoman Army, irregular fighters and the remnants of the CUP. He continued the genocidal policy engineered by the Committee for Union and Progress.

Ottoman Greeks were persecuted throughout Ottoman Turkey under the Kemalists. Between 1919-1923, media reports, accounts from missionaries, foreign diplomats and survivor testimonies, describe the systematic persecution of native Greeks. On the 6th of August 1921, the Maryborough Chronicle of Queensland published an article titled “Reign of Terror by Kemalists–Massacre of Greek Subjects” referring to Kemalists rounding up Greeks in Trebizond and putting them to death.1 On the 23rd of March 1921, The Examiner of Launceston reported: “Concentration of Kemalists–Terrible Massacres of Christians”, referring to a three day massacre of Christians at Caesarea (today Kayseri) in the interior of Turkey.2 On the 14th of June 1922, a New York Times article subtitled “Kemalist Troops Employed in Systematic Campaign of Murder and Starvation” reported on the massacre of 15,000 Greek men, women and children in the district of Rhodopolis. The report also described how Greeks from the town of Geronta (today Didyma) had been deported to the interior toward Mugla, some 130 km distant. Dr Dalalio, an Italian physician of the Red Cross, personally witnessed atrocities by Kemalists in the town of Macri (today Fethiye) and the deportation of all males from the ages of 12-85 to Funjah and Malatia.3 

 

The New York Times, 14 June 1922.

The Armenian-Greek Section (AGS) was formed following the First World War by the British High Commission in Constantinople and conducted a series of 87 meetings from February 1919 to November 1922. On the meeting of the 29th of September 1920, the AGS reported that a large band of Kemalist Nationalists led by a certain Djemal, surrounded the Greek quarter of Iznik (Gr: Nicaea) and seized the entire population numbering about 600 and later massacred them. No survivors were found.4 On the 5th of July 1920, 120 Kemalists and 600 Turkish citizens surrounded and pillaged the four villages at Foundouklia (today Findikli) near Adapazari. They collected 7,800 sheep and all cattle belonging to Christians. The men were shut up in a church and the women exiled. The men were then ordered to come out in 5's and were shot. Of the population of 3,400, 400 men were murdered and 30 of the women were exiled. The rest of the population fled to the mountains.5

Apart from persecuting Greeks in villages and towns, Mustafa Kemal also established special tribunals or Courts of Independence (Tr: İstiklâl Mahkemeleri) to sentence to death hundreds of influential Greeks - usually by hanging - including publishers, mayors of towns and villages and previous members of the Ottoman government. Through these courts, Greek intellectuals and the political elite throughout Asia Minor were killed in a matter of months. In the Pontus region alone, 60 people per day were hanged during the month of September 1921.6 Historian Mark Levene, in his journal titled “Creating a Modern Zone of Genocide" stated:

...the CUP committed genocide in order to transform the residual empire into a streamlined, homogeneous  nation-state on the European model. Once the CUP had started the process, the Kemalists, freed from any direct European pressure by the 1918 defeat and capitulation of Germany, went on to complete it, achieving what nobody believed possible: the reassertion of independence and sovereignty via an exterminatory war of national liberation.7

Mark Hopkins Ward, was an American physician working at the American Hospital in Harput while Greeks were being deported to the interior. He was expelled by the Kemalists for keeping notes on the deportations. Ward said: 

The Kemalists pursued with vigor their considered and systematic campaign for the extermination of the Greek minority in Asia Minor, which was attended with the same incredible brutality as marked the Turkish massacre of 1,000,000 Armenians in the early part of the Great War. 8

One of the final acts of the Greek Genocide was the burning of Smyrna (today İzmir) by Kemalist troops in September 1922. At the conclusion of the Greco-Turkish War, a victorious Mustafa Kemal entered İzmir on September 10. The following day, Kemalist soldiers and civilians began a systematic orgy of rape, looting and murder of Armenians and Greeks. On the 13th of September a fire was started by Kemalist troops which eventually burnt the Armenian, Greek and European quarters of the city to the ground; the Turkish quarter was spared. Kemal then issued a two week ultimatum for all Greeks and Armenians to leave or face deportation to the interior. Males between the age of 18-45 were declared prisoners of war and were sent to the interior, most of them to perish. In his memoires, Winston Churchill (1874-1965) later stated:

..Mustapha Kemal's Army .. celebrated their triumph by the burning of Smyrna to ashes and by a vast massacre of its Christian population...9

New York Times, 21 September 1922.

Adolf Hitler, the perpetrator of the 20th century’s most notorious genocides, often referred to Turkey as being a role model for him, and Atatürk as his 'star in the darkness.' Hitler expressed admiration for Atatürk and repeatedly stressed that he was Atatürk‘s student. In 1938 during an interview with Turkish politicians, Hitler said: “..Atatürk was a teacher; Mussolini was his first and I his second student."10  Hitler also considered Atatürk‘s Turkish Nationalist movement as being a ‘shining star’ for him.

In an interview with Swiss journalist Emile Hilderbrand published on Sunday 1st of August 1926 in the Los Angeles Examiner under the title "Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political Antagonists in Turkey", Mustafa Kemal acknowledged the Turkish massacre of its Christian element but attributed responsibility to the Committee for Union and Progress: He said:

These left-overs from the former Young Turkey Party, who should have been made to account for the lives of millions of our Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse, from their homes and massacred, have been restive under the Republican rule.”1

Today, Kemal holds the title "Atatürk" meaning father of Turks and is regarded as a national hero in Turkey where it's illegal to insult his memory. However, western academics have widely questioned the Turkish view of Kemal's role in the late Ottoman Empire. For example, in a speech at the European Parliament in Brussels on 13 November 2008, Dr. Ronald Münch from the University of Bremen pointed out that if Atatürk were alive today, he would have to stand trial for war crimes.12

He died in Istanbul in 1938.

 


1.  Graeco Turkish Hostiities: Reign of Terror by Kemalsits. Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld), August 6, 1921, p. 7, viewed May 5, 2015. 
2.  Concentration of Kemalists: Terrible Massacre of Christians. Examiner (Launceston, Tas), March 23, 1921, p. 5, viewed May 5, 2015, 
3.  Turks Massacre 15,000 More Greeks, The New York Times, June 14, 1922 , viewed May 5, 2015,  
4.  British Reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section, Vartkes Yeghiayan. Centre of Armenian Remembrance, page 172.
5.  ibid, p. 157.
6.  Hofmann, T. Γενοκτονία εν Ροή - Cumulative Genocide, The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks, edited by Hofmann, T, Bjornlund, M, Meichanetsidis, V, Caratzas, 2011, pp. 74-75.
7.  Creating a modern ‘zone of genocide’: The impact of nation- and state-formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878-1923, Mark, Levene.  Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 12, Issue 3, Winter 1998, p. 415.
8.  Nations of War Urged to Declare Turkey an Outlaw, Christian Science Monitor, June 21, 1922.
9.  Churchill, Winston, The Aftermath, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929, p. 444.
10. Ihrig, S. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination, Belknap Press, 2014. p. 116.
11. Los Angeles Examiner, Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political Antagonists in Turkey. August 1, 1926.
12. German faces probe for insult, Huriyert Daily News,viewed May 5, 2015, 

Last edited: 10 Sep 2021

 

Further reading:
Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination

 

 

The Greek Genocide began in the region of Eastern Thrace, otherwise known today as European Turkey or Turkish Thrace. At a global conference of Thracian Greeks at Didymóteicho in June 2006, April 6 was assigned as the day of remembrance for the genocide of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. April 6 was chosen because it was on this day during Easter of 1914 that the persecution of Greeks in the region intensified. The Greeks of Eastern Thrace refer to this day as Black Easter (Gr: Μαύρο Πάσχα).

The regime responsible for the persecution of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace before and during the First World War was the Committee of Union and Progress (C.U.P) otherwise known as the Young Turks. The methods used to eliminate Greeks in the region included, boycotting of businesses, looting, murder, deportation, extortion and the pillaging of towns, villages and places of worship. The methods were so effective, and were met with such little or no resistance and international condemnation, that similar methods were later used against Greeks and other ethnic groups throughout the Ottoman Empire to bring about their destruction.

The population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace at the beginning of the 20th century was more than 350,000. During the genocide, many of these Greeks were exiled to Greece, while 100,000 were deported to the interior of Asia Minor and only half returned.1

Persecutions from 1912-1913

Between the years 1912-1913, 15,690 Greeks were massacred in Eastern Thrace.2  A November report describes how the Ottoman Army at Aivali near Lüleburgaz massacred 167 Greek men, women and children. Four hundred Ottoman cavalry destroyed the Greek villages of Yagato and Golcuk, Bayramiç and Elmalı in the Malgara region. At Keşan, 300 Greeks were massacred.

Montpelier Examiner (Idaho), 1 Aug 1913. Source

Massacres of Greeks intensified in 1913. In July, the Ottoman Army massacred Greeks at Gönence, Tekirdağ, Hayrabolu, Hasköy, Hemit, Kürtüllü and Bayramtepe and committed widespread looting and rape. The burning of churches and entire villages usually coincided with massacres.4 In the region of Malgara alone, 18 Greek villages were wiped out. The Greek Patriarchate protested vigorously both to the Ottoman Government and foreign consulates but with no effect. In 1913, authorities also implemented a policy of deportation to destroy Greek communities. The deportations escalated in 1914. According to Taner Akçam:

The forcible expulsions and migrations from the area of Eastern Thrace began in the Spring and Summer of 1913. Attacks against the local Christian population continued throughout the year, but after 1914, the forcible removals began to take on a more systematic form.5

Persecutions in 1914

During 1914, the forced deportation of Greek communities in Eastern Thrace began in earnest. Entire villages and towns were uprooted, often with brutal force. On the 6th of April 1914, 200 Greek families from Binkılıç (Gr: Strantza) were deported. After being beaten, stripped of their valuables and having large sums of money extorted from them, Turkish corporals and gendarmes with swords drawn, ordered them to leave. Aspasia Constantinides lived through the deportation and she recounted:

After a two hour march, we reached a deep and narrow ravine where we found Corporal Ismail with a number of immigrants, apparently waiting for us. As soon as he saw us, he ordered our drivers to stop, and dragging the women out of the carts beat them savagely. They snatched the earrings the women wore and in so doing cut their ears; they forced them to undress in order to get at the necklaces they wore, and often tore them off their necks with such violence that in one instance a woman's throat was cut, causing the blood to flow in torrents.6

They arrived at Marmara Ereğlisi (Gr: Heraclea) where they were boarded onto the S.S Markella and deported.

The Teskilat-i Mahsusa (Special Organization, or SO) was a Turkish paramilitary unit that was often used during the genocide to co-ordinate attacks on Greeks. A report dated 8th of April 1914 by one of the foreign embassies in Constantinople made mention of 'Special Committees' operating in the Thrace region that were terrorizing Greeks and forcing them to flee. With the aid of the police, they were confiscating property and making residents sign declarations that they were leaving of their own free will.7 A report by the Consular Agent in Kirklareli on the 23rd of April 1914, stated that the hodjas (Muslim teachers) in local mosques were exciting the hatred of Christians and Greeks, and officials were arming local Turks with army rifles to commit crimes.8

The situation had become so critical for Ottoman Greeks that on the 6th of May 1914, the Greek deputies and senators of the Ottoman Parliament made a protest to the Ottoman Government against the persecution of the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire, but to no avail.  Later that month, the Ecumenical Patriarchate declared the Orthodox Greek church in a state of persecution in the Empire and ordered the closure of all churches and schools.

Port Pirie Recorder and Western Mail (South Australia), 19 May 1914, page 2.

In September 1914, the Mudir (local governor) Sarakin Tahsim Bey forced the residents of Yenice (Gr: Skepastos) to hand over 40,000 okas (Ottoman unit of mass) of corn which he then distributed to the Turkish immigrants at Vize. Rigorous boycotts were also enforced on the Greeks of Tekirdağ causing many to flee. Out of 250 shops only 20 remained.9

Yeniköy was located on the main road that linked Gallipoli to Keşan and Constantinople through Tekirdağ. Before 1914, the village comprised 689 people, all Greeks. In 1914, 567 of the village-folk of Yeniköy were deported to Vizir Hani (near Bursa) a distance of 300 km. They were first taken to Şarköy (Gr: Peristasis) and from there deported to the interior of Turkey. Only 275 returned after the war in 1918.10

Persecutions in 1915

Between January and April of 1915, there were reports of Greeks being buried alive and arrests of people on dubious charges. Priests, teachers and entire families were thrown in jail.11 During WW1, Greek males were enlisted into the notorious Labour Battalions (Amele Taburlari) and were literally worked to death, doing back-breaking work with little food or water. The rate of desertion was so high that women were beaten by gendarmes with whips on their soles in order to disclose the location of their husbands. The Greeks in the Diocese of Gallipoli and the Dardanelles were given two hours notice and deported during April 1915 on the pretext of military necessity. They were sent to the interior of Asia Minor without food and water to places near Bandirma and Balikesir some 200 km away. In total, a dozen towns and villages in the Gallipoli region were destroyed and 22,000 Greeks were sent to the interior where they were at the mercy of hostile Turks.12  The Metropolitan of Gallipoli, Konstantinos Koidakis witnessed the persecution of his flock and wrote:

More compassion is shown here to dogs than to the Christian refugees... Close to the Panderma [Bandirma] Railway Station the deaths of the refugees occur daily, and according to my information many die in the interior of the country... The extermination of the Christian refugees is most methodical. If they are deported for strategical reasons alone, they could have been left to settle in the place to which they were originally sent. Such, however is not the case. What is obviously aimed at by constantly shifting them from place to place is to exhaust them and so cause their death.13

Frank W. Jackson, of Pennsylvania, USA was president of the Greek Relief Committee, an organization established during WW1 to provide relief to Greeks during the genocide. In 1917 he stated:

The Greeks of Asia Minor have always been law-abiding and perfectly loyal to the Turkish Government. Under Abdul Hamid they were well treated, but his successors adopted a program to crush them...Along with the Armenians, most of the Greeks of the Marmora regions and Thrace have been deported on the pretext that they gave information to the enemy.14

On the 15th of April 1915, the Greeks of Çavuşköy (Gr: Amygdalia) and Yenice (Gr: Maistros) in the district of Enez were deported to Turkish villages such as Beyendi and Pasait, while the Turks of the nearby villages plundered their properties, churches and monasteries.15 From the 1st to the 15th of May 1915, the Greeks of Büyükdere, Kirits and Yeni-Machala (Dercos district) were deported. In some villages, people were compelled to sign a declaration that they left of their own accord and out of fear. Protests were made regarding these deportations, but even still, the houses and properties of those deported continued to be seized by Turks.16 On the 1st of June 1915, the inhabitants of Burgaz (Gr: Pyrgos) in the district of Dercos consisting of 3,000 persons including men, women and their babies, children and old people were ordered to abandon their villages and forced to walk for hours to Büyükdere. From there they were deported to the interior of Turkey and settled in Turkish villages such as Ik-kiol and Soulio in the district of Iznik. Their homes were seized by Turkish refugees.17

The diocese of Enos (Tr: Enez) was made up of 10,057 Greeks. In August 1915 these Greeks were deported to Malkara. Of the 17 churches, 15 were destroyed and the library which contained 1,900 volumes was pillaged. The monastery of Skalotis was burnt and those of Agios Panteleimon and Tsandiri were completely demolished.18 A report from Constantinople dated 8th of September 1915 stated that all the villages of the district of Kırklareli had been emptied of their Greek inhabitants. From Yenice (Gr: Skepastos) 3,000 Greeks were deported toward Tekirdağ. On the 8th of September 4,000 inhabitants from Sophides were evacuated. The Greeks of Demirköy (Samacovo) in the district of Vize (5,000 inhabitants) were also deported. Tourla and St. Stefano of the Vize district (3,150 inhabitants) were surrounded by Turkish gangs and no one remained.19

In September 1915, the Greeks of Yenice (Gr: Skepastos) were deported after being stripped of all their belongings and they arrived at Heraclea after a four day march. The majority of them crossed over to the Asiatic side and settled at Balikesir and Ada Pazar. Murder and floggings preceded their deportation.20 The town of Üsküp (Gr: Skopos) and its 6,000 inhabitants had a similar fate. On the 5th of September the town was surrounded by gendarmes and 200 Turks under the command of the ex-chief of the Izmit gendarmes, Yussuf Bey. The residents were forbidden from leaving. For five whole days they were subjected to an orgy of cruelty and were stripped of 3.000 Ltq (Turkish lira). Some Greeks were buried alive after being forced to dig their own graves. On the 10th of September they were finally deported.21

Harry Stürmer was a German journalist and correspondent for the Kölnische Zeitung newspaper in Constantinople between 1915-1916. In his memoir titled Two War Years in Constantinople, Stürmer was highly critical of the Turkish authorities and their treatment of Ottoman Greeks. He wrote:

I would like to say here a word about these Greek persecutions in Thrace and Western Anatolia that have become notorious throughout the whole of Europe. They took place just before the outbreak of war, and cost thousands of peaceful Greeks – men, women and children – their lives, and reduced to ashes dozens of flourishing villages and towns.22

Persecutions from 1919-1922

At the conclusion of the First World War, C.U.P leaders responsible for the atrocities against Ottoman minorities during the war were tried in Ottoman courts and many were found guilty of war crimes. While this may have offered some justice to victims' families, the Allied occupation of Constantinople, and the occupation of Smyrna by the Hellenic army in May 1919 led to the formation of the Nationalist Kemalist movement of Mustapha Kemal. The continued persecution of Ottoman Greeks by the Nationalists from 1919-1922 was a continuation of the program initiated by the C.U.P and concluded with their final expulsion.

Many atrocities committed by the Kemalists from 1919-1922 were reported to the Armenian-Greek Section (A.G.S) which was formed by the British High Commission in Constantinople. Between February 1919 and November 1922, the A.G.S met 87 times and heard numerous reports of atrocities against Greeks, but no action was taken against the perpetrators since the Allies were reluctant to act militarily. On the 20th of May 1919, it was reported that Lieutenant Alwyn Hadkinson, a Relief Officer for Southern Thrace, toured the region and concluded that arms were being distributed with the knowledge and assistance of Government officials. Public security he said was poor and the anti-Christian propaganda was on the increase.23 On the 25th of June 1919, Dr. Theotokas representing the Greek  Patriarchate reported that brigandage, murders and pillaging was occurring throughout Thrace.24 The A.G.S heard that the kaimakam (governor) of Shehnikeuy [Şarköy?] was responsible for Greeks of Tekirdağ, Malkara and Keşan abandoning their homes and that the Military Governor of Adrianople was encouraging marauding bands there, and that the situation was worsening.25 At the meeting of 12 November 1919, Mr Calvocoressi representing the Greek Patriarchate reported that Tekirdağ was full of fedais (fighters prepared to sacrifice their lives) who were menacing the Christians. The Turkish notables at Şarköy met at the mosque and stated that they were officially joining the Kemalist Nationalist movement and were preparing to distribute arms and impose payments to those unable to undertake military duty.26 On the 10th of December 1919 the A.G.S heard that Christians returning to their homes at Tekirdağ found that the Turks had taken possession of their houses and were pulling down their churches to build barracks.27 At the A.G.S meeting of the 10th of March 1920, it was reported that five villages at Tekirdağ were pillaged by 50 unknown persons wearing gendarme uniforms. A month earlier Nationalists had arrived at Tekirdağ with their leader and arms were distributed among the population.28

The New York Times, 4 March 1920.

On the 30th of June 1920 meeting, it was reported that the Greeks of Marmara Ereğlisi  (Gr: Heraclea) fled to Constantinople after their shops and houses were pillaged and some of the residents were killed. The village of Karahovouz containing 100 families was set on fire and its population massacred.29

The Greeks of Eastern Thrace continued to be persecuted by the Nationalist Kemalists until July 1920 when Hellenic forces were given Allied permission to occupy Eastern Thrace to provide them protection. In September 1922, the Nationalist forces of Mustapha Kemal brought Hellenism in the East to an end by burning the city of Smyrna to the ground and setting a deadline for the remaining Ottoman Greeks to leave the country. Following the signing of the Armistice of Mudanya on the 11th of October 1922, the Greeks of Eastern Thrace were given 15 days to evacuate their ancestral homeland and leave.

American writer and journalist Ernest Hemingway (1892-1961) arrived in Constantinople on the 30th of September 1922 as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Daily Star to report on events following the Smyrna fire. The following month he was in Thrace and witnessed the expulsion of the Greeks. In his October 20 dispatch, Hemingway described the wretched state of Greeks who were attempting the arduous journey to Greece by foot. He wrote:

In a never-ending, staggering march, the Christian population of Eastern Thrace is jamming the roads toward Macedonia. The main column crossing the Maritza River at Adrianople is 20 miles long. Twenty miles of carts drawn by cows, bullocks and muddy-flanked water buffalo, with exhausted, staggering men, women and children, blankets over their heads, walking blindly along in the rain beside their worldly goods.30

 

The Greeks of Ganochora fleeing their homeland, 1922. Source: Photographic archive EΛΙΑ-ΜΙΕΤ

 

Evacuation of the Greeks of Gallipoli, 18 November 1922.


1. Hofmann, T. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks, Caratzas USA, 2011, p 50.
2. Hofmann, T. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012, p. 49.
3. Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919, pp 24-25.
4. Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos, ibid, pp 32-52.
5. Taner Akçam. The Greek Deportations and Massacres of 1913-1914. In: Shirinian, George N (editor), The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012. p 73.
6. Greek Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918, Constantinople 1919, 19-20.
7. Arch. Alexander Papadopoulos, ibid, p 91.
8. Arch. Alexander Papadopoulos, ibid, p 98-99.
9. Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 31.
10. Arsenis Paraskakis, The Roots of Thrace, Neohori Peristasis, Viewed 29 March 2016,  http://neoxoriperistasis.blogspot.com.au/2014_02_01_archive.html
11. American Hellenic Society, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War, Oxford University Press, 1918, p 35.
12. File No 391, 867.4016/123, American Embassy Constantinople to the Secretary of State Washington, 10 August 1915.
13. Ecumenical Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press, pp. 43-44.
14. Turks Turned Against Greek, 700,000 Suffer, The Evening Independent. 17 October 1917, 6.
15.American Hellenic Society 1918, ibid, 40-41.
16.Ibid, 41.
17.Ibid.
18.Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 16.
19.American Hellenic Society, ibid, 42-43.
20.Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 10.
21.Ibid.
22.Stürmer, H 1917, Two War Years in Constantinople, George H. Doran and Co, New York. 169.
23.Yeghiayan, V (comp.) 2007, British Reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia: 1919-1922, Center for Armenian Remembrance, USA, 49.
24.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 68.
25.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 82.
26.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 102.
27.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 112.
28.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 132.
29.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 155.
30.Hemingway, E 1922, A Silent, Ghastly Procession, The Toronto Daily Star, 20 October.

Last updated 14 July 2020.

The Greek Genocide Resource Center (GGRC) is a not for profit online resource created to raise awareness on the Greek Genocide; one of the first, yet lesser known genocides of the 20th century. Established in 2010, the website offers students, researchers and the general public, information which is easily accessible, concise and well referenced. These resources are provided to the public to broaden awareness and to attain wider recognition.

Aside from the website, we have contributed to the publication of a book on the genocide and currently working on similar projects. Our efforts are also an attempt to pay respects to the victims and ensure they are never forgotten. 

The GGRC is a member of Alliance Against Genocide, an organization which works on predicting, preventing, stopping and punishing genocide and other forms of mass murder. The Alliance is made up of over 90 organizations worldwide. 

Mission 

Our mission is to promote awareness of the Greek Genocide by collating archival material and making it more accessible to the public. Our aim is to see the Greek Genocide taught in schools alongside other genocides. Part of our work therefore involves publishing and also donating reading material to teaching institutions.

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We are always on the lookout for people who can help us grow. Click here to view positions vacant
 

Benefactors

The GGRC thanks and acknowledges the financial support of C. Patralis and I. Fidanakis

 

            

      

 

Disclaimer

As an Amazon Associate, the GGRC earns a commission from qualifying purchases using links from our website. Proceeds are used to purchase reading material which we donate to teaching institutions or for our own use. Learn more

 

 

Subcategories

The perpetrators of the Greek Genocide were responsible for planning and executing the destruction of Greek communities. They include members of the Committee of Union and Progress Party, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his nationalist supporters (Kemalists) as well as German military personnel. 

A focus on some of the regions affected and other documentary evidence.

Many individuals and organizations provided relief to the victims and survivors of the Greek Genocide. The following are some of the individuals who sometimes risked their lives to provide such care. This is a new section of the website and is currently being updated.

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