TURKS KILLED 120,000
East Oregonian, Sep 16, 1922.
GREEKS, ARMENIANS MASSACRED BY TURKS ACCORDING TO ESTIMATE; U.S. DESTROYERS ARE REMOVING REFUGEES MASSED AT SMYRNA.
British Reinforcements Landed at Constantinople Today While Turkish Cavalry Neared The City; Greek Warship Opened Fire on Turkish Quarter of Smyrna; American Flag Prevented One Massacre; Many Girls Have Been Kidnapped.
Great Britain Has Invited Greece, Rumania, Serbia and British Dominions to Participate in the Defense of Zone Around Constantinople.
Mohammedan Leaders Have Decided Upon a General Moslem Uprising Simultaneously with Attack on Constantinople; White Massacre Expected to Follow Uprising; Russia and Bulgaria Ready to Side with Turks in Event of War.
Unconfirmed estimates from Armenian sources say that seventy thousand Christians were massacred in Smyrna and fifty thousand elsewhere in the path of the Turkish armies. Refugees along Smyrna Bay are estimated at half a million.
Smyrna, Sept. 16, -(U.P)- Twenty-five hundred dead bodies litter the streets, while the harbor waters are dotted with floating corpses as a result of the massacre and fire. Girls from twelve to eighteen were kidnapped. Aged men and women were shot down as they fled from the fire. Six thousand Greeks are reported burned alive.
Excerpts from article appear above. To read entire article click here.
Source: East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR), 16 Sept. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88086023/1922-09-16/ed-1/seq-1/>
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Angelou, Michail. Asia Minor Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Testimony. Triti Opsi, Athens 2013.
Barton, James Levi. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas, 1998.
Barton, James Levi . The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930.
Baum, Wilhelm. The Christian Minorities in Turkey. Kitab-Verlag Klagenfurt-Wien, 2006.
Bierstadt, Edward H. The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.
Bjørnlund Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification. Journal of Genocide Research (2008), 10(1), March, 41–57.
Brown, Carroll N, and Ion, Theodore P. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918.
Central Council of Pontus, Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.
Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.
Couzinos, Efthimios N. Twenty-three years in Asia Minor. Publishers' graphics, LLC, IL.
Delegation of the Pan-Pontic Congress, The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Dobkin, Marjorie H. Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
Doukas, Stratis. A Prisoner of War’s Story. University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman & Modern Greek Studies, 1999.
Einstein, Lewis. Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.
Eliou et al. Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Enepekides, Polychronis. Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.
Fotiadis, Constantinos, ed. The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.
Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.
Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
Greek Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press.
Greek Patriarchate, The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.
Hatzigeorgiou, Christos. To Ortakoy Bithynias: Ai Sfages kai i Ksethemeliosis Afton (Ortakoy, Bithynia: The Massacres and Uprooting), Athens 1965.
Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)
Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.
Kapsi, Yianni. 1922 Ei Mavri Vivlos (1922 The Black Bible), Livani Publishers, 1992.
Karayinnides, Ioannis. The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.
King, William C, ed. King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts, 1922, pp.436-438.
William H. King, Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States, Dec 22, 1921. Washington 1922.
Kontogeorge-Kostos, Sofia. Before the Silence: Archival News Reports of the Christian Holocaust the Begs to be Remembered. Gorgias Press, 2010.
Kyriakides, N.G. The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, New York, 1918?
Lepsius ,Johannes. Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.
Lewis, Bernard. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. United States Naval Institute, 1927.
Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. Norbury, Natzio & Co Ltd, Manchester, London 1919.
Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. Certain Samaritans. The Macmillan Company, 1933.
Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.
Marriott, J.A.R. The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
Midlarsky, Manus I. The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Milton, Giles. Paradise Lost: Smyrna 1922. The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance. Sceptre, 2009.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
Murray, Arthur D. Black Sea: A Naval Officer's Near East Experience. Edited by Renee Heideman. Kindle Digital, 2014.
Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.
L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.
Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.
Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans.Paris, 1922.
Rendel, George W. Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice. British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources.”
Sartiaux, Félix. Le Sac de Phocée: et l'expulsion des Grecs Ottomans D'Asie-Mineure en Juin 1914. Paris 1914.
Sartiaux, Félix. Phocaea 1913-1920. The account of Félix Sartiaux. Rizario Idrima, 2008.
Schaller, Dominik J, ed. Zimmerer, Jürgen, ed. Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge, 2009.
Shaw, S.J. and Shaw, E.K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Shenk, Robert. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press, 2012.
Shirinian, George N. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012.
Shirinian, George N. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books 2017.
Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
Soteriou, Dido. Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.
Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1917.
Suny, Ronald G, ed. and Gocek, Fatma M, ed. and Naimark, Norman M, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011.
The Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question: memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. The Hesperia Press, London, 1920.
Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan. Carolina Academic Press, 1st edition, 2010.
Tsirkinidis, Harry. At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
Tsoukalas C. The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Tusan, Michelle. Smyrna's Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide and the Birth of the Middle East. University of California Press, 2012.
Ureneck, Lou. The Great Fire: One American's mission to rescue victims of the Twentieth century's first Genocide. Ecco, 2015.
Venezis, Elias. To Noumero 31328: Sklavoi sta Ergatika Tagmata tis Anatolis. N. Theofanidis & S. Lampadaridis, Mytilene 1931.
Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.
Williams, John. Deutschland über Allah! Germany, Gallipoli and The Great War, Australian Scholarly Publishing 2016.
Wuarin, Albert. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International Public Opinion, Geneva 1922.
Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.
Smyrna 1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
Based on the book The Number 31328: The Book of Slavery by Elias Venezis. Venezis's memoire details his experience as a prisoner enslaved in a work battalion during the Greek Genocide.
America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide. Availability
In this section of the website students, educators and the general public can download and read various books and documents on the Greek Genocide.
BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL
The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora : how the Greeks of Marmora were expelled from their homes and scattered among the villages around Kermasti or the unwritten testament of the Greeks who were forced to embrace Mohamedanism.
Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, 1918?
Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey.
Published by the American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919.
The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920
Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate, 1920
Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922.
Norbury, Natzio and Co Ltd, Manchester and London 1919
Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Download from archive.org
Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
Download from archive.org
Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919.
Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
George Allen and Unwin, London 1922.
Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920.
Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920.
THE GENOCIDE OF THE GREEKS IN TURKEY
SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES FROM THE NICOMEDIA (IZMIT) MASSACRES OF 1920-1921
By Kostas Faltaits
Edited and translated by Ellene Phufas-Jousma and Aris Tsilfidis
With a prologue by Tessa Hofmann
Cosmos Publishing 2016
The Izmit Massacres of 1920-21 were massacres perpetrated by Kemalist forces on Greek communities in the region east of Istanbul historically known as Nicomedia. According to one report, at least 32 Greek villages were looted or burned and more than 12,000 Greeks were massacred.
In March of 1921, journalist Kostas Faltaits arrived in Asia Minor (today’s Turkey) sent by newspaper Embros to cover Greece’s movements in the Greco-Turkish War. By the time he arrived in the region of Nicomedia (today’s İzmit) - a region inhabited by a large number of Greek, Armenian and Circassian communities - Kemalist forces had already set fire to many of the surrounding towns and villages, leaving behind a trail of death and destruction. Faltaits came face to face with the fleeing survivors of these massacres, and was able to collect these valuable and graphic eye-witness testimonies which were published in both Greek and French at the time. Their stories include the mass burning of civilians in their churches and homes, rape and sexual torture of women, and the burning of children alive. The book also includes the observations of the Armenian Metropolitan of Nicomedia, Stephan Hovakimian.
Translated for the very first time in English and with a prologue by Tessa Hofmann, this edition puts into perspective the claims of mutual atrocities which both Greeks and Turks were accused of in this region. The events described in the book will shed some light into just one of the many chapters of the Greek Genocide, a genocide which claimed the life of approximately one million Greeks living in the former Ottoman Empire.
The current English translation of testimonies collected by Kostas Faltaits represents [...] an excellent initiative which deserves to be extended to the methodic examination of the three main phases of the extermination of the Greeks of Asia Minor. Prof. Raymond Kévorkian, historian.
"..this new publication in English stands as a small but important victory for those who study genocides in the sad and ever-present need to understand and try to prevent them. Faltaits’s witness reports of the Nicomedia (Izmit) massacres will now hold up much longer against what Lincoln called “the silent artillery of time.” Michael Kalafatas.
The accounts by Greek survivors in The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey, of massacres, torture, rape, theft, and the destruction of villages, and the brutalizers' sheer pleasure in inflicting such suffering on fellow humans, attests to the depths to which humans are capable of descending. Thea Halo, author of Not Even My Name.
This is an important document about the Greek Genocide and deserves to be placed alongside other works of the 1920's such as the Black Book of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, George Horton's the Blight of Asia, and Edward Hale Bierstadt's the Great Betrayal. Theodore Karakostas, activist, author, writer.
With moving testimonies contextualized with scholarly and journalistic commentary, this book improves immeasurably our understanding of the Anatolian Greek genocide by Kemalist militants. The book helps to correct the omission of the Greek experience from the Armenian genocide literature. Hannibal Travis, Professor of Law.
Kosta Faltaits’s book based on the evidence of the survivors’ accounts brilliantly exposes the policy of the Kemalists to exterminate the Greek population of Nicomedia. The author using remarkable first-person accounts presents the chilling history of how the Turks tried by all means to eliminate one more Christian community of their country. Anahit Khosroeva, Ph.D.
The eye-witness account of the massacre of Greeks in the town of Ortakioy is told by 18 year old teacher Paraskevi Anastasiadou who fled the massacre and hid on a mountain overlooking the town. From there, she witnessed the slaughter of her town-folk and recounted:
Continually, they gathered people and butchered them incessantly with their knives and hatchets. No sound of gunfire was heard; just the shouts of people being butchered reached us. Later, gigantic flames shot up from the ravine and, as we learned from a man who reached the mountain escaping from Turkish hands, the Turks had poured petrol over the people they had gathered in the ravine both dead and alive, and set fire to them.
- Theodore Karakostas: Assyrian Information Management. Also published in The Armenian-Mirror Spectator, Nov 25, 2017. Read online
- Prof. Raymond Kévorkian: Études arméniennes contemporaines, Volume 9, September 2017, pp. 247-250. Read online
- Michael Kalafatas: American Hellenic Institute Policy Journal, Volume 9, Spring 2018. Read online
Editor’s Note * Prologue, by Tessa Hofmann * Introduction * Foreword * Fulazik * The Songs of Fulazik * The Last Survivor of Nicaea * Kara Tepe * Fountouklia * Konzes * Lefkes * The Teacher of Otakioy (today Ortaköy) * Giaour Ali * The Armenians * The Exodus of Karasou * Epilogue * Biography: Konstantinos Faltaits (1891-1944) * Publications * Index
Awards: Second prize in a prestigious translating competition in the USA.
About the author
Kostas Faltaits (1891-1944) was a renowned Greek journalist and author. He worked for a number of major Athenian newspapers. He was born in Smyrna (today Izmir) in 1891 but in the same year his family moved to the island of Skyros. He studied Law and Philology at the University of Athens but in 1910 began his career in journalism. More about the author here.
The book was originally published in Greek in 1921 under the title These are the Turks: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia Massacres (Αυτοί είναι οι Τούρκοι: Aφηγήματα των Σφαγών της Νικομήδειας). It was published in French in 1922 & 1923 under the title Voila les Turcs! : recits des massacres d'Ismidt.
A map of the Nicomedia (today Izmit) region of Turkey where the massacres described in the book took place.
SMYRNA 1922: THE DESTRUCTION OF A CITY.
Marjorie Housepian Dobkin.
New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
In September, 1922, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, the victorious revolutionary ruler of Turkey, led his troops into Smyrna (now Izmir) a predominantly Christian city, as a flotilla of 27 Allied warships-- including three American destroyers-- looked on. The Turks soon proceeded to indulge in an orgy of pillage, rape and slaughter that the Western powers anxious to protect their oil and trade interests in Turkey, condoned by their silence and refusal to intervene. Turkish forces then set fire to the legendary city and totally destroyed it. There followed a massive cover-up by tacit agreement of the Western Allies who had defeated Turkey and Germany during World War I. By 1923 Smyrna's demise was all but expunged from historical memory.
In the hinterlands of the Smyrna district it was the Greeks who bore the brunt of the Turkish policy. In June 1915 a violent campaign against the Greeks burst into the Turkish press, while posters exhorting the Moslems to murder appeared suddenly on the walls of schools and mosques. Murders of from ten to twenty peasants each day culminated in a massacre of the Greeks at Phocia, and the deportation of several hundred thousand others, and the destruction of their homes and carefully tended vineyards in the region north of Smyrna."- p46
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.